In the following year the demand still growing for whole or selfcoloured animals, the Committee feared it might lead to establishing a fashion which, if not checked, would ultimately lead many breeders to forget the real and true merit of the Jersey. The report therefore vigorously and admirably protested thus: -"Let henceforth such fanciful ideas as black tails and black tongues be simply estimated at their proprer value; but let the large and rich yield of milk be ever the breeder`s ambition to procure." The observations of Mr. Waring, the editor of the AMerican Herd Book, on the same subject, were approved.
Greater profits than ever continued to be realized by the sale of potatoes and catttle; one farmer , in St. Lawrence, obtained £206 5s for 2½ vergéees (equal to at little more than one English acre) of early kidney potatoes. Prosperity, as often occurs, led to speculation, and two of the local banks stopped payment in this year, and great pecuniary difficulties arose.
At the April Show, 1874, Mr. C. Renouf`s bull Duke was awarded thirty-one points and appears to be the only animal that ever obtained the full number.
In 1875 experiences had shown the necessity of mote minutely detailing the several points recognized as the standard of perfection, and of establishing a ratio of them. In drawing up the annexed scale, preponderance was given to such points as denote richness of quality and produce; and no fanciful ideas of taste or fashion were allowd to creep in.
|Articles ||Ratio Scale of Points for Bulls || Points|
| 1.|| Registered pedigree|| 5|
| 2.|| Head fine and tapering, forehead broad|| 5|
| 3.|| Check small|| 2|
| 4.|| Throat clean|| 4|
| 5.|| Muzzle dark, encircled by light colour, with nostrils high and open|| 4|
| 6.|| Horns small, not thick at the base, crumpled, yellow, tipped with black|| 5|
| 7.|| Ears small and thin, and of a deep orange colour within|| 5|
| 8.|| Eyes full and lively|| 4|
| 9.|| Neck arched, powerful, but not coarse and heavy|| 5|
|10.|| Withers fine, shoulders flat and sloping, chest broad and deep|| 4|
|11.|| Barrel hooped, broad, deep, and well ribbed up|| 5|
|12.|| Back straight from the withers to the setting of the tail|| 5|
|13.|| Back broad across the loins|| 3|
|14. || Hips wide apart and fine in the bone|| 3|
|15.|| Rump long, broad, and level|| 3|
|16|| Tail fine, reaching the hocks, and hanging at right angels with the back|| 3|
|17.|| Hide thin and mellow, covered with fine soft hair|| 4|
|18. || Hide of a yellow colour|| 4|
|19.|| Legs short, straight and fine, with small hoofs|| 4|
|20.|| Arms full and swelling above the knees|| 3|
|21.|| Hind quarters from the hock to point of rump long, wide apart, and well filled up|| 3|
|22.|| Hind legs squarcely placed when viewed from behind, and not to cross or sweep in walking|| 3|
|23.|| Nipples to be squarcely placed and wide apart|| 5|
|24.|| Growth|| 4|
|25. || General appearance|| 5 = 100|
No prize to be awarded to bulls having less than 80 points. Bulls having obtained 75 points shall be allowed to be branded.
Ratio Scale of Points for Cows and Heifers
| Articles || || Points|
| 1. ||Registered pedigrees || 5|
| 2. || Head small, fine and tapering|| 3|
| 3. || Check small, throat clean|| 4|
| 4. || Muzzle dark and encircled by a light colour, with |
nostrils high and open
|5. || Horns small, not thick at the base, crumpled, yellow, |
tipped with black
| 6. || Ears small and thin, and of a deep orange colour |
| 7. || Eye full and placid|| 3|
| 8. || Neck straight, fine and lightly placed on the |
| 9. || Withers fine, shoulders flat and sloping, chest |
broad and deep
| 10. || Barrel hooped, broad and deep, being well ribbed up || 5|
| 11.|| Back straight from the withers to the setting on |
of the tail
| 12. || Back broad across the loins|| 3|
| 13. || Hips wide apart and fine ine the bone; rump long, |
broad and level
| 14. || Tail fine, reaching the hocks, and hanging at right |
angles with the back
| 15. || Hide thin and mellow, covered with fine soft hair|| 4|
| 16. || Hide of a yellow colour|| 4|
| 17. || Legs short, straight and fine, with small hoofs|| 3|
| 18.|| Arms full and swelling above the knees|| 3|
| 19. || Hind quarters from the hock to point of rump long, |
wide apart, and well filled up
| 20. || Hind legs squarely placed when viewed from behind, |
and not to cross or sweep in walking
| 21. || Udder large, not fleshy, running well forward, in |
line with the belly, and well up behind
| 22. || Teats moderately large, yellow, of equal size, wide |
apart, and squarcely placed
| 23. || Milk veins about the udder and abdomen prominent|| 4|
| 24. || Growth|| 4|
| 25. || General appearance|| 5|
| || || |
| || Perfection.............. || 100|
No prize shall be awarded to cows having less than 80 points.
No prize shall be awarded to heifers having less than 71 points.
Cows having obtained 75 points and heifers 65, shall be allowed to be branded.
The Articles Nos 21 and 23 shall be deducted from the number required for perfection in heifers, as their udder and milk veins cannot be fully developed.
It may be as well here to state, that the practice in judging on the Island, is to go carefully over all the animals; draft them, and gradually select the best, as is done in this country; the scale of points is then brought forward; and, in giving the number of points to each animal, an opportunity is afforded of correcting any oversight.
At the show, May 28, 1874, Mr. Charles Nicolle offered a cup for the cow with the best escutcheon according to the Guénon system. The following year and since, this prize has been continued by voluntary contributions. The system has now been known and practised in France for nearly half a century. Its discoverer, Mons. Francois Guénon, of Lisbourne, was a poor studious lad, the son of a gardener. He read books on botany, agriculture, and geometry, to know the external signs of classifying plants and vegetables; and to estimate their qualities and produce. When fourteen years old, he was tending the milch cow of the house; and scratching the hair, that grew against the grain above the udder, he observed a kind of bran or powder fall off. Remembering that some one had said cows should have external signs of qualities and defects, he began to reason, and concluded that as signs existed for the good or bad qualities of plants, there ought also to exist analogous signs in the animals kingdom. He examined other cows, and observed that the gravure (better known in England as the escutcheon), from which the bran fell, varied in form. In length, in 1814, he concluded from the different varieties of these forms, that one could know the qualities and faults of each animal. He visited fairs, markets, cowhouses; interrogated cattle dealers and veterinarians; and i 1822 commenced himself in the traffic of cows of all countries. He multiplied his experience, made exact notes of his observations, and finally classified them. Selecting animals first into three groups, large, middle, and small size; he divided the signs into eight classes or families, and each class into eight orders, from which he could determine the quantity of milk any cow would give daily, the longest and the shortest time they would hold their milk, and its quality. In 1837 he laid his observations before the Agricultural Committee of Bordeaux, who pronounced the system infallible; and the following year before the Agricultural Society of Aurillac, who put his observations to a practical test, allowing even for the food of the cow, and they were convinced of its thruth. Each Society awarded M. Guénon a gold medal, proclaimed him member, and subscribed to his work. The system, by whose who have studied it - and it certainly does require both study and memory - is found to be very trustworthy; moreover, it holds good with bulls and with heifers from three months old; and, when thoroughly known, is possibly very the external evidence of the milking and dairy qualities.
The prevalence of the foot-and-mouth disease in England somewhat checked the briskness of trade in 1876; and it saisfactory to know that the Island has kept free from this troublesome complaint. The interchange of visits continued; the congress of the "Association Normande" was visited at Bayeux, and the "Association Bretonne " at Vitré.
The following year, 1877, these associations were invited to Jersey, where a fête was held in August. At this, among other rural attractions, an immense show of cattle was held. The great prices obtained for the show animals were again viewed with alarm; for the first and second prize bulls were respectively sold for £75 and £50 each; £100 was obtained for a heifer, and several others were sold at prices varying from £30 to 370 each. The report then goes on to say:-"It will be observed that we are steadily obtaining an increasing value for our stock; to this extent, indeed, that whilst the Society, supported by the States, has offered considerable sums as premiums, for the purpose of retaining the prize cattle on the Island, so ready as sale, a high figures, offers itself, that the forfeiture of the prizes becomes a secondary consideration with proprietors. As the duty of your Committee is to stimulate and watch over every interest connected with the agriculture of the Island, it is deemed expedient occasionally to repeat warnings which have before been given; and, of all others, if there be one in particular which needs attention in reference to cattle breeding, it is that Jersey farmers should always breed in the first place for quality, and for beauty in the second. Fanciful tastes and colours may continue to guide the lovers of fashion; but it must ever be remembered that dairy properties are the true points of excellence in the Jersey cow. The Committee, therefore, again desire to impress on all the necessity of discarding every animal from prize-taking which does not possess the unmistakable signs denoting richness of produce."
The show in May 1878 was the largest on record; 213 cows and heifers competed, and the cow classes were admirable. It became necessary again to endeavour to check the exportation of prize animals by forfeiture of the prize money, and a fine was imposed as well. The report adds:-" The Committee further hopes, by increasing still more the value of the prizes in these classes, to retain the best bulls for the Island." Special attention was called to the show at Kilburn; and the members were advised to prepare for keen competition, and to go resolved to support the reputation of the island Breed, by showing animals of the best forms, and - most typical of real merit -quality.
The show did give satisfaction; Mr. Bowstead`s report of the animals exhibited was considered encouraging to the Island, and it was gratifying to find that the breed had held its own against the English stock, for both champion prizes were won by native animals. The London Dairy Show was commented on less favourably; and it was considered that "the rules to guide the judges there, were not based upon those acknowledged by the Society." The exports, however, fell off in 1879, owing to the depression in England and to the American restrictions on the importation of cattle. Produce was scarce, excepting early potatoes, which yielded a marvellous return, and prices generally became low as the year closed.
The following is the Prize List for the Bull Show held April 3, 1879:-
Class 9. Bulls born on or after the 1st December 1877. First prize £20; second,£15; third, £10; fourth,£5; parochial prize,£1.
Class 10. Bulls born or after the 1st December, 1876, and before the 1st December 1877. First prize,£7; second,£5; third,£3.
Class 10½. Bulls born on or after the 1st December, 1875, and before the 1st December, 1876. Prize,£5.
Herd Book stock open to all comers:-
Class 11. To bulls born or after 1st December, 1877. First prize £10; second,£5; third,£3.
All bulls having obtained prizes at this show must be reexhibited at the show to be held on the 22nd May, otherwise the prize will be forfeited.
Bulls in Classes 9 and 11, obtaining 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th prizes, must remain in the Island for publice service thirteen calendar months; Bulls in Class 10, until the 1st December, 1879; Bulls in Class 10½ till the 1st September, 1879; and Bulls obtaining Parochial prizes, six calendar months; all dating from the 3rd April, 1879.
The charge for service of Members`Cattle not to exceed ten shillings per animal; and not to be less than one pound for Non-Members`Cattle.
Exhibitors having taken prizes, and not complying with the above Rules, shall forfeit their prize money; and those in Class 9 shall, besides, pay a fine of £10 if the first prize, £7 if the second, £4 if the third, and £2 if the fourth; and those in Class 11, £5 if the first prize, £3 if the second, and £1 if the third.
Special prizes be awarded for the richest type according to Guénon`s system:- in Class 9, prize £2; Class 10,prize £1.
List of Prizes to be awarded at the Show of Cows, Heifers, and Butter, on May 22nd, 1879:-
Class 1. Heifers born on or after December 1st, 1877:- First prize, £2; second,£1; third,10s.; fourth,5s.; Parochial prize, 10s.
Class 2. Heifers in Calf, born on or after Dec. 1st, 1876:- First prize,£3; second, £2; third,£1; fourth, 10s.; Parochial,10s.
Class 3. Heifers in milk, born before Dec. 1st, 1876, and less than three years old:- First prize, £2; second,£1; third 10s.
Herd Book Stock open to all comers: -Class 4. Heifers, born on or after Dec. 1st., 1877, first prize, £1; second, 10s.
Class 5. Heifers, born on or after Dec. 1st, 1876, first prize £1; second, 10s.
Class 6. Cowa from 3 to 5 years inclusive: First prize,£3; second,£2; third,£1; fourth,10s; Parochial,10s.
Class 7.Cows above 5 years old. First prize, £3; second, £2; third, £1; fourth, 10s; Parochial prize, 10s.
Extra:- For cows, prizetakers, which are thereby disqualified from competing in this class; First prize, £1; second, 10s.
Note.- No second, third, or fourth prizes will be awarded in the above Classes, unless there are 12 animals entered, except in the Class of Heifers in Milk, where the lowest number is fixed at 6, and in the Extra Class for Cows at 5, except on the special recommendation of the Judges.
Class 8. Cows giving the richest milk on trial, the said
animals having calved since Jan.1st, 1879, and producing 2 pots of milk *[One pot is equal to two imperial quarts] at one milking. First prize, 30s; second, 15s.; third, 10s.
Class 9. Butter, best and finest pound. First prize, 10s; second, 7s 6d.; third, 5s; fourth,2s.
Special prizes will be awarded for the richest type according to Guénon`s system viz. Class 1, £1; CLass 2, £1.
The Society, at the close of the year 1879, numbered 247 members; of which 55 were £1 and 192 were ten shillings subscribers, out of a population of 2465 occupiers of land. The States`grant consists of £150. Of this £100 is divided in prizes of £10 among ten parishes, and £50 in prizes for Bulls. The entrance fees for Cattle at the shows bring in from £5 to £7; but the forfeited prize money amounts to a considerable sum; in 1877, it was £46 10s. The money received at the exhibitions scarcely meets the expenses. One shilling is charged for admission, the members and their families being admitted free; in very good years, £7 to £8 is received; but generally it rarely exceeds £5. Seeing, therefore, the small sum which the Society has at its command, it is the more surprising that so much good has been effected. The work, like that of the Herd Book, is honorary; and except a small rent for "the first floor over the little seed shop in Bath Street", which is used as a Board Room, the bulk of the money is expended in prizes and the encidental expenses in connexion with the shows.
It may be interesting to show, as far as can be ascertained, the number of animals that have been exported from Jersey. Previous to 1862 the returns of all the exports from the whole of the Channel Islands were put together by the Custom House. The export from each island was not kept separately until 1862; therefore the returns prior to that year cannot be quoted accurately for Jersey.
The following Table of the animals shipped from Jersey to England and elsewhere is compiled from various sources * [ The figures from 1803 to 1812 are obtained from Quayle`s work; from 1823 to 1825 from a "Brief description of Jersey;" from 1844 to 1858 from the Reports of the Royal Agricultural Society of Jersey.]
|Year ||Cows and Heifers || Bulls||Calves ||Total |
| 1803.............. || 406 || 2|| || 408|
| 1804............ || 267|| 2 || || 269|
| 1805........... || 428|| 6 || || 434|
| 1806........... || 754 ||11 || || 765|
| 1807.......... || 712|| 22 || || 734|
| 1808............. || 490|| 9|| || 499|
| 1809............. || 790|| 19|| || 809|
| 1810............. || 988|| 17 || || 1005|
| 1811............. || 737|| 17|| || 754|
| 1812 to Aug. 10.. || 534|| 7 || || 541|
| 1823............. || 1500|| 18|| 5 || 1523|
| 1824............ || 1614|| 28|| 36|| 1678|
| 1825........... || 1796|| 33|| 69 Oxen 35|| 1933|
| 1844.......... || 1450|| 31|| || 1481|
| 1845.......... || 1239|| 36|| || 1275|
| 1846.......... || 1660|| 27 || || 1687|
| 1847.......... || 1188|| 26|| || 1214|
| 1848......... || || || || 1325|
| 1849|| || || || 1521|
| 1850|| || || || 1743|
| 1851|| || || || 1903 |
| 1852|| || || || 1625 |
| 1854.......... || 1559|| 43|| || 1602|
| 1857.......... || 1744|| 37|| || 1781|
| 1858.......... || 1562|| 31 || || 1593|
| || || || || |
| || || || || |
The following are the returns, compiled from the Customs, of the Animals shipped from Jersey to England* [I am indebted for this information to Mr. R. Butterfield of the Bills of Entry Office, Custom House, London]
|Year || Cows and Heifers ||Bulls || Total |
| 1862........ || 1783|| 30|| 1813|
| 1863....... || 2379|| 38|| 2417|
| 1864........ || 2793|| 18 || 2811|
| 1865........ || 2272|| 16|| 2288|
| 1866........ || 1610|| 4 || 1614|
| 1867........ || 2456|| 27|| 2483|
| 1868........ || 2147|| 41|| 2188|
| 1869........ || 1976|| 59|| 2035|
| 1870........ || 1751|| 51|| 1802|
| 1871........ || 1948|| 54|| 2002|
| 1872........ || 1859|| 51|| 1910|
| 1873........ || 1767|| 59 || 1826|
| 1874........ || 1577|| 47|| 1624|
| 1875........ || 1540|| 61|| 1601|
| 1876........ || 2094|| 108|| 2202|
| 1877........ || 2316|| 60|| 2376|
| 1878........ || 1992 || 75 || 2067|
| 1879........ || 1757|| 70|| 1827|
It may be interesting to show the number of Live Stock in Jersey as published in the Agricultural Returns+ [These figures were supplied to med by Mr. Pearson, of the Agricultural Returns Office; the returns for the years 1871 and 1874 were not obtained in time for publication]
|Year ending || Cow and Heifers |
in milk or in calf
| Others than those in milk or in calf ||total |
| June 25, 1867....... || 4270|| 5811 || 10081|
| - 1868....... || 6420 || 5805|| 12225|
| - 1869....... || 6504|| 5254|| 11758|
| - 1870....... || 6101 || 4972|| 11073|
| - 1872........ || 5887|| 5054|| 10941|
| - 1873....... || 5817|| 5003|| 10820|
| - 1875....... || 6103 || 5418|| 11521|
| - 1876....... || 6053|| 5249|| 11302|
| June 4, 1877....... || 5742|| 5264|| 11006|
| - 1878....... || 5605|| 5145|| 10750|
| - 1879....... || 5869|| 5205|| 11074|
Exportation of Cattle from the Island of Jersey, extracted from the Veterinary Enspector`s registry. Mr- H.E. Poole, M.R.C.V.S.* [This Table is most likely to be accurate, inasmuch as the customs returns are often in excess of the number actually shipped. Notice is given to the Masters of vessels that so many cattle will be shipped on such a day; when the day arrives, it often happens that two or three animals, for sundry reasons, cannot be sent, and the actual number exported is consequently less than that recorded in the Custom House]
| ||1876 || ||1877 || ||1878 || || 1879|| |
|Months || Cows||Bulls || Cows || Bulls|| Cows|| Bulls|| Cows||Bulls |
| January || 94|| 7 || 84|| 5 || 87|| 6|| 95|| 6|
| February || 128|| 2|| 90|| 5 || 110|| 7 || 97 || 2|
| March || 246|| 7|| 136 || 4|| 193|| 5|| 154|| 4|
| April || 258|| 6|| 243 || 8 || 283 || 8|| 226|| 4|
| May || 227|| 5|| 238|| 2|| 328|| 10 || 222|| 4|
| June || 189 || 4 || 161|| 5 || 203|| 6 || 220|| 5|
| July || 91|| 3|| 174|| 9 || 141|| 4 || 112|| 4|
| August || 116 || 9|| 187|| 7|| 135|| 10|| 78|| 4|
| September|| 186|| 7|| 186|| 7|| 140|| 9|| 96|| 7|
| October|| 150|| 5|| 107|| 1|| 157|| 6|| 154|| 14|
| November|| 114|| 2|| 158|| 7|| 82|| 6|| 100|| 5|
| December|| 35|| 2|| 57|| 2|| 73|| 2|| 21|| |
| || 1834|| 59|| 1821|| 62|| 1932|| 79|| 1575|| 59|
| || Summary||Total |
| 1876|| 1834 Cows, 59 Bulls|| 1893|
| 1877|| 1821 Cows, 62 Bulls|| 1883 |
| 1878|| 1932 Cows, 79 Bulls|| 2011|
| 1879|| 1575 Cows, 59 Bulls|| 1634|
During 1878 nearly 100 old cows were shipped to France, but are not included in the above list.
The Herd Book is entirely due to the forethought and untiring efforts of Mr. Chas P.Le Cornu. A Jerseyman by birth and lineage, he took an early and active part, as a proprietor and breeder, in the Agricultural Society of the Island. His name is mentioned on the Board of Management and as having acted as a Judge in 1851. He therefore must have worked with many of the principal founders and members of the Society. In 1857 he became Honorary Secretary, which office he seems to have filled for ten consecutive years; afterwards he became Vice-President, and finally President of the Society in 1870-12. In this course he seems to have followed in the steps of Col. Le. Couteur, and it is even still more curious that he now holds the same post of Colonel and Adjudant-General, which the Colonel filled, in the Militia - a MIlitia the oldest in the world, having been established as far back as the reign of King John. Thus, happily, have the sword and the ploughshare been united. To English breeders he is well known; having frequently acted as Judge at the Royal Shows; and also as the author of the Prize Essays on the Agricultural of the Channel Islands and on the Potatoe in Jersey *[See Royal Agricultural Society`s Journals, vol.xx p. 32, 1859, and vol vi. second series, p. 127, 1870] Consequently he was not only practically acquainted with the breeding and rearing of animals, but also with the working and requirements of his own Island Society. He foresaw, many years before the Herd Book was started, the necessity of some further classification of the animals in a show, where upwards of two hundred were exhibited. The standard and mangement of the English Herd Book, into which he inquired, did not meet his notions of the character of the work required on the Island; so he determined to work our a unique system of his own. His principle was to sift, as it were, these large gatherings into three classes; by highly commending the best for their quality, symmetry, and constitution, and their butyraceous or milk-flowing properties; commending the second best, and rejecting the remainder or third class; and by examining and registering the approved offspring, he hoped in time to root out the bad animals, so that with six or seven registered crosses animals might be bred more to a certainty. Frequent complaints, however, arose at the exhibitions, of fraudulent practices concerning the pedigree points; and opinion was very much divided as to the continuance of these points. Some maintained, that under the system practised up to 1865, it was impossible to precent false declarations; whilst others were unanimous, that the points (if proper means were taken to ensure faithful entries) were of the greatest value and importance. Some, again, contended that as there was but one breed on the Island, a Herd Book was unnecessary. At last, however, after great opposition, a meeting was held on the 3rd of March, 1866, of the President the Rev. W. Lemprière, himself the Secretary, and Messrs. T. Le Cornu, A. Le Gallais, H.J. Le Feuvre, J. Vaudin, and twenty members of the local Farmers` Clubs, who were invited to cooperate with the Society to take steps "for the formation of a Herd Book for the Cattle of the Island of Jersey." Large meetings of the several Parish Farmers` Clubs were held, where he placed the advantages of the Herd Book system before the members, and thus by degrees difficulties were surmounted and the people became convinced.
It may not be out of place here to quote the Report of the Royal Jersey Agricultural Society on pedigree: -"It may be alleged by some that, as in this Island there is only one, and thoroughly, distinct race of cattle, and which has been so preserved in its integrity for numberless generations, there can be bo necessity for taking into such particular consideration the question of pedigree; that, in short, the cattle comprising the whole of the Island stock being of native birth, and the produce of parents of one and the same race, it must follow that they are all of equal value as regards blood.
"If, on first consideration, such an argument as this could in any way be entertained theoretically, it certainly, could not be maintained for one moment when practically applied; for whilst admitting that the whole cattle in the Island are without the slightest cross with foreign stock, nevertheless, in the number there are many different strains, or, it may be said, different families, which vary immensely in some of the most important features of type and character. Hence it is that we see cows which yield a greater quantity of milk than others; some scanty milkers with a tendency rather to fatten, others which carry little flesh and that milk well up to the moment of calving. It cannot, therefore, be gainsaid that although the whole may comprise one common race, still there is a vast and most important difference in the value of the various strains which are comprised in it. Thus it is why the careful and intelligent breeder sees the necessity of avoiding what is bad; and equally of selecting what is best, in order to maintain his stock without alloy; and of preventing, as much as possible, degeneracy in the qualities of the strain which he has adopted as his particular stock.
"The question now arises, How is this to be attained? We answer, By strict attention to pedigree. Among breeders the value of this has frequently been a vexed question. Careful, observing, and skilful men have frequently come to different conclusions; some affecting to consider blood more slightly than others who, perhaps relying altogether on blood, paid too little regard to physical appearance. But there is one established rule in nature which experience has taught us, - that a family of cattle which has been bred closely together, acquires a fixed type and possesses a wonderful power of communicating their peculiarities to their progeny. You will see the same form, the same colour, the same propensities, and frequently the same features transmitted with fidelity; and, as by this rule, blood communicates its valuable properties, it also carries with it its defects; and therefore, even before admitting a stock-getter, however pure in blood that animal may be, he should be thoroughly examined; and, if he does not possess all the requirements of his family type and character, he should be carefully avoided, otherwise degeneracy must most undoubtedly follow. To obtain the best results, we must breed from the best animals of the best blood and form; and from the product we must again select, with the greatest care, those possessing the most valuable qualities and the fewest defects. This has been the system upon which all the renowned breeders in England have established those valuable herds which to-day are known by the names of their respective founders.
"Another question may arise, since it is impossible to carry out the system without breeding ind and in -Is this advisable? If we look upon the habits founded in nature, we shall find that breeding in and in prevails extensively. This, perhaps, of itself should be sufficient to determine; at any rate if not practised too closely, the system cannot be wrong; but we have also as a guarantee the results obtained by scientific breeders, which show us that to obtain permanency of type, this system must be followed; studying the choice of parents, with the greatest possible accumulation of proved blood and form, and carefully avoiding any cross with animals of a different strain. It is so well established, that it need hardly here be recorded that, the most notorious animals which have figured in the history of English cattle, have been bred by the system which we here desire to advocate.
"In this Island, as we have already said, we possess a totally distinct and special race, and which is becoming yearly more appriciated; and although the race is unmixed, there is so much difference in the value of the thousands comprised in it, that the Committee feel anxious to enforce the absolute necessity of following the principles set forth by those eminent breeders who, by their careful study, have attained a worldwide-reputation in their profession, and who, at this day, are the masters of animals so valuable as scarecely to be bought at any price."
After several meetings of the Herd Book Committee a number of regulations were laid down. These regulations, practicable on the Island, would scarecely be entertained in England, if, indeed, they could be carried out; and even on the Island, for several years, they received much opposition. The first regulation insisted that stock, from which produce is to be hereafter registered, must be submitted for examination, and must be approved by the Judges appointed for that purpose, and that examinations take place in 1866, 1867, and 1868. The first examination was held on the 4th April. Six Judges were appointed. Breeders and owners brought up their cattle to St. Heliers, and a staff of men brought the animals before the Judges to be examined. To subscribers to the Agricultural Society a fee of 6d. was charged, but to non-subscribers 2s 6d. Forty-two bulls were registered as foundation stock, in a tabular form, giving the number of the animal, its proprietor`s name and parish, its qualification, name, colour, age at qualifacation, date of qualification, distinctive markings, and remarks, prize notes &c. This form has been adhered to, and is published as the Herd Book.
A week later 182 cows were examined and approved. By the end of 1868 altogether 92 bulls and 381 cows and heifers had been examined. Mr. C.P. Le Cornu undertook the honorary duties of secretary and treasurer. The first year found him fifteenpence halfpenny out of pocket, the second year the deficit amounted to 6s 9½d; but the third year brought in a balance of £5 11 s. The Presidents of the Farmers` Clubs were then requested to consult their members, if they were still of opinion to maintain the book on its present footing. The reply was favourable; a general feeling prevailed to support the book, "without giving to the cattle entered therein, any points for pedigree at the shows of the Royal Jersey Agricultural Society."
Having shown how the foundation stock was established, it now becomes a more difficult task to show the working of the book for pedigree stock. Each proprietor of a foundation bull has to keep a correct entry of all qualified cows and heifers served by his bull. He has also to give a certificate, to the proprietor of the cow or heifer, after the service. Within twenty-four hours after the cow or heifer has calved, the proprietor has to call in a neighbour (who must be a member of the Society), to attest that the identical cow has calved, and to note the sex and markings of the calf. This calf has then to be registered on the books of the Herd Book Society between the age of six and nine months, and the date of birth is compared with the date of service given on the certificate by the proprietor of the bull. If the calf be a bull, it has to come up for examination when a year old, and is not allowed to serve until it is a year old; if a heifer, when it has calved its first calf, so that its udder may be judged. If, however, through any blemish this animal is rejected, it is permitted to come up again for examination after its next calving, and even a third time, in the hope that improvement may have taken place and that the judges might see fit to eventually give it a commendation.
It may well be conceived how onerous are these restrictions. As a natural consequence, the number of qualified pedigree animals continued to be small, and up to the end of 1871 only 28 bulls and 9 heifers received numbers. It was, however, found necessary to again open the foundation stock. In 1869, 25 bulls and 92 cows, and in 1870, 33 bulls and 251 cows were examined, and small prizes of £2 and £1 were offered for the produce of registered animals. In 1871, the fund having increased to £14 18s 3½d., it was resolved to give £6 for Herd Book stock at the Channel Islands Exhibition; but only pedigree stock was to be examined. In January 1872 a report was published informing the public of the steady and continued progress of the Institution; that the small number of qualified animals was due to the neglect of farmers to register their young stock within the appointed period of six and nine months; and that Herd Book animals had won the first and third prizes, two silver, and five bronze medals at the Channel Islands Exhibition.
The small number of qualified animals is not to be wondered at, seeing the troublesome regulations that are enforced. In 1872 the pedigree stock only increased to 47 bulls and 22 cows; so that it was resolved to reopen the foundation stock in 1873 and 1874, and charge 5s for approved animals. Mr. Waring wrote a letter urging the entry of worthy animals, that they might be entered in the American Herd Register,* [The Herd Register of the American Jersey Cattle Club has reached six volumes. It is published in New York, in tabulated form, somewhat after the system of the Herd Book of the Island of Jersey, thus: - Number of animal, name, sire and dam, colour and distinguishing marks, breeder, when dropped, when imported, by whom, from what place, on what vessel &c., owner. Proofsheets of these entries are issued in a monthly bulletin, and owners and others are requested to report all errors. The first volume, which was illustrated with photographs of animals, was issued i 1871, and the last the sixth volume 1879. 3500 bulls are numbered and 7700 cows. There are nine articles of Constitution; 150 members were elcted up to April 1879; and a scale of points, after that drawn up in Jersey, is printed. Certain inquiries were made of Col. Le Couteur on behalf of the Club when it was first started, and in reply thereto he wrote the following letter:-
"Belle Vue, Jersey, September 14, 1869
"I have only experience to add to anything I may have written in my essay on the Jersey cow in the Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England in 1845, which has reappeared in the Transactions of the New York State Agricultural Society of 1850. Our farmers have not not the singular variety of ideas as to the appearance and character of our breed which you describe to prevail among the members of your Club.
"Our breed i believed to be a local pure breed, its original milking and butyraceous properties having been improved more than three-quarters of a century back by carefully crossing in the line: in that view, then, without much regard to beauty of form. Later, since the formation of our present Society, of which I was the first honorary secretary in 1834, great attention has been constantly paid to combine beauty of form with butter-producing habits.
"The outline history of our breed is this:- In the year 1789 the Jersey cow was already considered so good, so superior to any then known, I imagine, that an act of our local legislature was passed by which the importation into Jersey of cow, heifer, calf, or bull was prohibited.
"Guernsey cattle are not deemed foreign, but there are scarcely ever a dozen of that breed in our Island. They are of larger bone and carcase, considered to be coarse, though famous milkers, requiring much more food then the Jersey. Our judges at our cattle shows have discarded both them and their progeny.
"Those enterprising American farmers who have visited Jersey, and have found a marked difference to exist between the cattle of the eastern district and those of the western district, being cursory visitors, may not have been made aware of what I am to state. I believe the type to be the same. The difference in appearance is thus accounted for: the north and north-west coast of Jersey is high and precipitous, a bold syenite rock rising two hundred and more feet from he level of the sea. Its nearest shelter in a westerly or south-westerly direction is the island of Newfoundland or the British-American shore. South-west gales prevail here nine months out of the twelve. While I am writing, a hurricane from the south-west has burst over us and burned all the exposed trees like a flame; it has ruined scores of orchards and gardens, levelled many trees, leaving the pastures like damaged hay. Hence this elevated coast has usually a short, scant, rich, nutritious herbage, from being so frequently saturated with saline moisture. Thus the cattle on this side are small, fine limbed, and hardy. The southward half of Jersey may be called an inclined plane, gradually and beautifully slanting to the sea shore, watered by innumerable streams. Part of it is a rich alluvial soil and meadow land - so sheltered and warmed as to produce fruit and vegetables a fortnight or three weeks sooner than in my neighbourhood. The cattle of this district are, consequently, fed on a richer pasture. They are larger in carcase, some think handsomer, than those of the upland. I consider them to be more delicate.
"The late Earl Spencer, former President of the Royal Agricultural Society, England, the able and worthy contemporary of Bates, Booth, and other noted Shorthorn breeders had a fine little herd of Jersey cows, When on a visit to him at Althorpe, in 1839, he strongly advised me to recommend our farmers never to venture on a foreign cross, nor with Shorthorns or Devons: merely to cross the cows of the low rich pastures with the hardy bulls of the exposed northern coasts and vice versâ. We had established a character in our cows for creaming and milking habits peculiar to our crumpled-horned race, to hold to that alone, by which means our breed might continue as renowned in the next century as it has been so in the present one. Many have held to that sound advice.
"I shall be much honoured by receiving a copy of your Jersey Herd Book, and shall, moreover, feel much gratified, if what I have written shall prove interesting or useful to you.
"We have never had rinderpest or cattle plague in Jersey."]
where no animals from England or France were permitted. He also advised that attention should be paid to the dairy qualities, rather than to the colour of the animal; and he deprecated the practice of killing bad-coloured bull calves which were born from good dairy cows; and also of saving goodcoloured bull calves from dams which were bad milkers.
The first volume of the Herd Book, in tabulated form, was then published. The sale of it brought in £8 5s, at 1s. 6d each copy. Of this sum, 33 was given to the Agricultural Society for prizes for Herd Book stock. Certificates of pedigree, stamped by the Herd Book Society`s seal, were to be charged 1s.; but if the certificates were for England or America, they were charged 2s. 6d. each. The demand, however, for pedigree stock by the AMericans and English, and the increase of prices, awoke the Jerseymen to a sense of the value of pedigree. When the second examination opened, even with a 5s fee, they sent up their cows by hundreds for examination. By the end of 1874, the foundation stock stood at 234 for bulls and 1584 for cows, and the funds amounted to nearly £200. Nothing could be more gratifying to Mr. C.P. Le Cornu.
The second volume was published in 1874, and the examination of only pedigree stock went on to December 1877. Only 175 bulls were examined and 185 cows and heifers; and the small increase was attributed to the "temptingly high prices" offered for the young animals of qualified stock, and which caused great numbers to be exported. The Herd Book Society was very watchful, too, of any tricks; two of its members, having been suspected, were arraigned before the Committee, judged, found guilty, and fined £2. The third volume was published in 1877, and the fourth is expected to be issued in 1880.
The effect of the fashion in colour became apparent in 1878; for the Report stated "that quality forms the leading point to which the judges attend; fanciful ideas of colour form no part of the examination, though it is remarkable that an increasing proportion has taken place in the number of (whole) self-coloured bulls and heifers." Seventy certificates had been delivered by the Society - 48 for America and 22 for England.
Disappointing as the slowly increasing number of pedigree animals may have been out of a stock of ten thousand, the Committee had, however, another pleasant surprice in store; for a petition, signed by sixty-three breeders, was sent in, praying that the foundation stock might be reopened for two more years. This was granted, on condition that the fee for approved was made 10s, instead of 5s. Once more numbers flocked up for examination; and the entries stood on the 30th December, 1879:- foundation stock -bulls 317, cows 2197; pedigree stock - bulls 220, cows 310; and the funds amounted to over £500.
Such is the history of the Jersey Herd Book, a success most gratifying to Mr. C.P. Le Cornu and to those who have undertaken its onerous and honorary duties. As a registration of meritorious animals it is most excellent. Indeed every recorded animal stands pretty well in the same position as a prize winner; but the book does not show at a glance, as in the English volumes, the extended pedigree. It is, however, possible to trace the pedigree in full from the numbering of the parents down to the foundation stock. Like producing like is the theory upon which it is based. The practical experiences of breeders in England has modified this theory; and the offspring of excellent parents, though it be blemished, or ill nourished when a calf, has been found to beget excellent produce; such a blemished calf, however, would not be admitted into the Jersey Herd Book. It would be registered; but its entry with a number and qualification in the printed Herd Book would depend on its merits, when brought up for examination after it had calved.
Although many of the herds have been handed down by father to son, yet few private records appear to have been kept by Island breeders. The pedigree of Coomassie and Lady Isabella, both prize winners, are probably the longest on the Island. Mr. Marett, of St. Saviours, has a good herd; he inherited the stock left by his father, who bought the farm in 1820; and though he occasionally purchases other animals, his rule is to breed from his own stock. He has paid especial attention to richness, quality, and colour. Mr. Le. Gallais` herd at St. Brelade is one of the largest on the Island; it was established about thirty years ago, and a number of prizes have been won both on the Island and in this country by his stock. Capt. Perrée, at St. Marys, has had one tribe for about twenty years; his herd is small, consisting of about half a dozen cows; but they are very handsome, whole coloured, and exceedingly rich. His bulls, too, have been frequent prize winners and much in request; the one in use during the past season having served upwards of three hundred cows. Mr. Arthur`s herd, also in St. Marys parish, is numerous and of long standing; it has produced many noted and prize-winning animals: and there are many other successful exhibitors. An old, and certainly most uniform stock, belongs to Mr. Falla, of St. Johns. This was commenced in 1837 by the purchase of a two-year old heifer for £6 10s. She received 21 points at the Society`s show in 1839, and was of a red fawn and white colour; he refused £15 for her, which was then considered an extraordinary offer. There was at that period difficulty in obtaining good sires, and it was no infrequent thing for him to ride the Island and find a bull out of a cow with a good udder. The herd has grown up principally by the use of his own bulls. It consist of about five cows, one bull, and four or five heifers, on sixteen acres. The animals are very uniform, a reddish fawn grey in colour, and with occasionally a little white. They are short legged, deep bodied and thin shouldered, with beautiful udders, and full of quality. These points Mr. Falla considers have been greatly improved, for the original udders were very narrow and deep, hanging down between the legs. The butter yielded is weighed. In 1875 five cows gave, from March 4 to January 19, 1359 lbs., and the following year the same five cows gave 1398 lbs. from March 1 to February 7. In 1878 three of the same cows gave in 52 days, from March 27 to May 18, 228½ lbs. *[The Jersey pound is a little heavier than the English, in proportion of 104 to 112.],besides what milk was used in the house. Cows calve in January, February, and March. In six years four first prizes have been won by Mr. Falla`s yearling bulls.
The custom of late years has become very prevalent for breeders to send their cows to prize bulls. It is no uncommon thing for yearling bulls to serve between two and three hundred cows in one season. No old bulls are kept; some say that this is because they become vicious after two and three years old. It is to be believed that another equally cogent reason is, the aolder bulls become useless. Farmer`s Glory 319, the first prize yearling bull at Kilburn, was stated to have positively served 292 cows before being exhibited last July; and I was assured that about 150 cows had since been put to him before the close of the year. Duke 274, the first prize two-year-old bull, purchased by Lord Chesham at the Kilburn Show, was found to be utterly impotent; and was soon afterwards slaughtered.
The majority of cows kept on the Island are unnamed, and the bulls also [If animals are named the name continues for generations; one breeder of considerable position and longstanding called all his bulls "Nelson" in succession and his cows "Beauty".] unless they happen to be prize or Herd Book animals. Considering that only about 300 animals were recorded last year, out of 10.000 on the Island, a vast number must still remain nameless. Nearly one fifth of these are annually exported; and, if named at all, perhaps suddenly named the day they are sold. Hence it will be apparent that though, occasionally, pedigree animals or their offspring may be purchased, yet no Island pedigree can really be relied upon as authentic, unless it be signed by the Secretary of the Herd Book and stamped with the Society`s Seal.