History of the Breed - Jersey (4) -England

by John Thornton

 In England there have been several accounts of the Jersey breed of cattle published. Of these I shall proceed to remark upon the principal ones; and to add other information which, through private channels, has come to my knowledge.
 Mr. C.P.Le Cornu, in his prize essay *[See Royal Agricultural Society`s Journal, vol xx p. 48 (1859).] asserts that the fact of cattle of this type being brought over to England first from ALderney was the cause through which the name of that small and thinly-populated island got its name attached to the produce of Jersey and Guernsey. A military station has long existed in ALderney; and it is possible that men returning from service there may have been the means of spreading at home the reputation of the Channel Islands breed for peculiarly rich milk and butter. But, be that as it may, the practice of the Messrs. Fowler, in advertising their numerous sales as being of Alderney cattle, popularized the use of the name, and has helped to keep it in existence.
 Mr. Lawrence P. Fowler goes twice a year to Alderney, and takes the surplus stock, which rarely exceeds one hundred head. Guernsey bulls have been used there; and the cattle (which at one time were even smaller than the Jerseys) are now larger, and resemble more the Guernseys, though not in any respect equal to them. Col Le Couteur states that the proprietor of Alderney, about 1780, obtained from Mr. Dumaresq of St. Peters, Jersey, some of his best cows - a statement which goes to show that even in that early day the Jersey was recognized as a superior race.
 At the close of the last century Channel Islands cattle were shipped in small numbers to England, and found their way along the coast and into the southern counties. In 1794 they were so far recognized as a breed of value that an experiment was tried in Kent, between a large home-bred (probably Suffolk) cow eight years old and a small Alderney *[I have retained the use of the word Alderney in most places, in the remainder of this paper; and also in some of the Catalogues of Sales at the end of the volume, as being the term by which animals of the Channel Islands breeds were known in this country, and by which  they are still frequently called.] two years old. The home-bred gave in seven days 35 gallons of milk, which made 10½ lbs. of butter; the Alderney 14 gallons, which made 6½ lbs. *[General View of the Agriculture of the County of Kent, by John Boys, of Betshanger, Farmer,  1794.], or more than double the amount of ounces of butter to the gallon of milk.
 Mr. George Culley, of Northumberland, an eminent agriculturist and authority on cattle, wrote a book in 1807, called "Observations on Live Stock." His quaint remarks are so characteristic of the breed at that period that they are worth quoting. He says:- "The Alderney breed is only met with at the seats of our nobility and gentry, upon account of their giving exceeding rich milk to support the luxury of the tea-table; indeed, if it were not for the sake of method and my believing them a distinct breed, I might have saved the trouble of naming them at all, as I imagine this breed too delicate and tender ever to be much attended to by our British farmers; because they are not able to bear the cold of this island, particularly the northernmost part of it. They are very fine-boned, in general; light red or yellow in colour; and their beef is generally yellow og very high-coloured, though very fine in grain and well-flavoured. They make themselves very fat, and none of them in the least subject to lyer or black flesh. I have seen some very useful cattle, bred from a cross between an Alderney cow and a Shorthorn bull".
 Youatt`s description of them in his well known work i very meagre *[ William Youatt was a professor in the Royal Veterinary College, London; he collected much information on the British breeds of domesticated animals, and wrote the work on "Cattle" published by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, 1834]. He classed them under the head of Foreign breeds of Cattle, and associated them with those of Normandy, remarking that wether from the Continent or the Islands they pass under the common name of Alderneys. They are only found, he continues, in gentlemen`s parks or pleasuregrounds (except in Hampshire); and their real ugliness is passed over on account of the richness of their milk and its great yield of butter; moreover it is thought fashionable to view and Alderney cow or two, grazing at a little distance from the house. Lawrence and Parkinson are both quoted; and he adds, considering its voracious appetite, it yields very little milk. "That milk, however, is of an extraordinarily excellent quality, and gives more butter than can be obtained from the milk of any other cow. Of this no one can doubt who has possessed any Alderney cows. One excellence it must be acknowledged that the Alderneys possess; when they are dried they fatten with a rapidity that could be scarcely thought possible from their gaunt appearance, and their want of almost every grazing point while living. The Duke of Bedford exhibited a French ox at the Smithfield Cattle Show in 1802, whose four quarters weighed 95 stones 3 lbs., and the fat 17 stones 3 lbs., Smithfield weight of 8 lbs. to the stone".
 Of all English herds, that belonging to Lord Braybrooke, at Audley End, is undoubtedly the oldest. The Home Farm there has always been retained by the family; and the best of stock, even to this day, is kept upon it. The Secretary of the Board of Agriculture in 1805 states that, "Lord Braybrooke, at Audley End, has a very fine dairy of polled Yorkshire cows and two  bulls; and that he gives much attention to keep the breed pure and improving by a du selection of calves for stock, and by feeding them for the first two years on the of everything. Mr. Nockolds, the agent, assured me they are excellent milkers, some of them giving in the height of the season three gallons at a meal."
 The farm books at Audley End have been carefully kept since 1772. These throw much light on the early stock of the farm. On the 24th July, 1811, an auction was held of "the whole of the truly valuable dairy of cows and young stock, consisting of fourteen extremely large polled Yorkshire cows, six heifers, two weaning calves, and two bulls of the same breed. The above are parted with on account of the proprietor`s wish to change his stock; and are well worth the attention of gentlemen, farmers, or graziers, being beautifully marked in colour, excellent milkers, and have the greatest tendency to fatten. They have been reared on the premises; and at a very great expense." The prices realized were:- Fourteen cows (£11 to £34 each), £320; six heifers [8gs. to £25 each), £91 8s.; two calves, £16 10s.; two bulls, 345 10s.
 The entries relating to the introduction of the Alderneys read thus:-
 "July 4, 1811. Paid John Shurmer, for 8 Alderney cows and a bull, £172 4s.
 Man`s expenses, bringing beasts from Southampton, £8 16s. Gave Mr. Shurmer`s man, 2s 6d.
 "Sept. 11, 1811. Paid Shurmer for 12 Alderney cows and 3 heifers £257 10s.
 Man`s expenses, bringing beasts from Southampton, £12 3s 6d. Paid Mollony (land-steward at Billingbear), for one Alderney cow and two heifers, £42 7s."
 In 1839 £15 10s was paid to Mr. N. Catlin, in Essex, for an Alderney heifer. In Nov. 1841 £15 15s. to Mr. J.A. Houblon for an Alderney bull and an Alderney calf. And in Nov. 1844, "Alderney prize bull, bought at Southampton show, and conveyance home £33 18s 9d". This bull was purchased from Mr. Massey Stanley; but it cannot now be identified among the Southampton exhibits. The bull is remembered by the men on the estate as "the prize bull." He was a light grey. That the stock was well managed, and the best of its kind, is apparent from the following list of prizes won at the Shows of the Saffron Walden Agricultural Society, which eventually became merged into the Essex County Show; the first important meeting of which under the county name took place in 1858:-
1833, Oct. First prize for Alderney Heifer.
1834, Oct. First prize for Alderney Cow.
 Extra prize for Alderney Heifer.
1835, Oct. Second prize for Bull of any breed.
1837, Oct. First prize for Alderney Cow.
1840, Oct. Second prize for Bull of any breed.
1842, Oct. First prize for Alderney Cow.
1843, Oct. First prize for Alderney Cow.
1844, Oct. First prize for Alderney Cow.
1845, Oct. Extra prize for Alderney Cow.
 First prize for two-year-old Heifer of any breed.
1847, Oct. First Prize for Cow of any breed or age.
 First prize for Alderney Cow in milk
 First prize for two-year-old Heifer of any breed.
 1849, Oct. First prize for Bull of any breed.
 First prize for two-year-old Heifer of any breed.
1851, Oct. First prize for Alderney Cow in milk.
1852, Oct. First prize for Cow in milk, any other breed than  Shorthorn.
 First prize for two-year-old Heifer of any breed.

 No further entries occur, but a not significantly states that "many more prizes would have been obtained if the cow and sheep stock which were qualified for competition had not been kept from several of the shows for fear of the communication of disease between exhibited animals." Feeding as well as dairy properties were studied at Audley End. One entry records "a fat ALderney steer sold in December 1838; weight 86 stones 3 lbs., at 8 s per stone (of eight pounds), £34 9s 9d."
 In January 1852 an Alderney cow was bought for £ 16; and a herd book, carefully recording the dates of birth of the calves, their colours and destination, has been kept since the 15th of July, 1839. The colours are therein given: dark, black and white, and red and white; but, unfortunately, until several years later, the names of the sires of the calves were not given. A bull of Lord Rivers` was used; and it is said that most of the bulls were bred at home,. During the last ten years fresh blood has been introduced into the herd from the stock of Lord Chesham, Mr. W.G.Duncan, Mr. W. Gilbey, and Mr. G. Simpson. The herd at present number about 46 head, most of which are cows and heifers.
 The great distribution of the breed in this country dates back to 1811, when Mr. Michael Fowler, of Little Bushey, became importer of Alderney, Jersey and Guernsey cows. He was born at Kirkleatham in Yorkshire, and came to London when eighteen years of age. For years he was travelling partner in the Great West London Dairy. He bought upp cows all over the country. Little Bushey Farm was the resting place for them before they finally reached the Dairy, which stood near where Hyde Park Square now stands. On one of his journeys Mr. Fowler passed e man driving a little cow to Barnet Fair, unlike anything he had seen before. On inquiry, the drover told him the cow had been sent a present to his master, who did not like her, and that he was to sell her and ask £9. Mr. Fowler, who had just married and was living at Little Bushey, thought the little cow would be a pretty present for his wife, and offered £7 for her. This was declined; and the man took the cow to the fair, where, however, she, from her small size and appearance, became an object of ridicule among the dealers and drovers. So much so was this the case that the man, far from getting his £9, was glad enough to leave the fair and take the cow home again. Oddly enough, Mr. Fowler overtook him returning, and repeated his offer of £7, which the man at once accepted, with five shillings for himself. The cow calved a few weeks afterwards; and produced for seventeen weeks 14¼ lbs. of butter weekly. This extraordinary yield and the fine quality of the butter so surprised Mr. Fowler, that he determined to find out whence she came, and to get more of the breed. He discovered that she came from one of the Channel Islands; and Mr. James Deal, of Southampton, introduced him to Mr. Shurmer, who used to have four or five cows over in the cutters that came from the Islands. These cows he purchased and readily sold in London,  but the cost price being raised he was obliged to go direct to the Islands, and soon established a regular business with this country. He pointed out to the Island breeders the indifferent state in which the cattle were kept, and being acquainted with the improvements made in shorthorns, he urged the Jersey farmers to improve their breeding; and recommended the establishment of Agricultural societies and shows like those held in England. Col. Le Couteur took must interest in this suggestion; and the original scale of points, with Mr. Fowler`s help was drawn up, as has been previously stated. Mr. Fowlwe often acted as judge; he also exhibited some animals at the Highland Society`s show at Glasgow in 1850, which won the Silver Medal; and a Gold Medal and nine hundred francs were obtained at the Paris Exhibition in 1856. The Emperor of the French bought his prize bull there, as well as four cows.
 When the Alderneys (for by such name only were they known) arrived in England, they used to be shod with thin plates of iron; and then they travelled in droves of forty to fifty to the principal towns. Circulars were sent out to the country gentlemen, and advertisements inserted in the local papers. Many cows were sold privately; and when the remainder became small and indifferent, they were finally sold by auction.
 Mr. Fowler`s first agent in Jersey was Mr. P. Le Gresley; he was succeeded by Mr. John Le Bas of St. Heliers (who acted in that capacity for Mr. Fowler and his son Mr. L.P. Fowler for upwards of forty years). Mr. Le Bas`s business was dealing and collecting and shipping the animals. The services rendered (in a large measure  due to Mr. Fowler) and estimation in which he was held by his countrymen, was shown by a testimonial, which was presented to him in 1867, with a silver tea and coffee service, salver, and 160 sovereigns.

 Translation of the Testimonial to Mr. Le Bas.

 "Mr. John Le Bas,
 "It gives me great pleasure, on the present occasion, to be the interpreter to you of the sentiments which animate the agriculturists of Jersey, and to present to you, in their name, this testimonial of their esteem. For upwards of forty-five years you have acted as intermediary between us and the agriculturists of England and other countries, for the exportation and sale of the cattle bred in this Island. In that capacity, by the loyalty of your dealings you have attracted the respect and confidence of all; and our relations with you have always been most agreeable. The exportation of our cattle, as every one knows, is a branch of industry of the greatest importance to the Island.; and is a source of well-being to a great number of our farmers. The probity and good faith with which you have always acted towards those with whom you have dealings have merited their esteem and respect. They found that in you they could repose perfect confidence , and that the prices they obtained were the result of a just and honourable valuation. It is this trait in your character which has struck us all, and which explains the spontaneous sentiment which has now brought us together to present you with the tribute of our approbation. Kindly receive at our hans this testimonial, with a purse of one hundred and sixty sovereigns; and may you yet  live many years surrounded by the esteem and respect which you have so legitimately acquired.
      "John Picot, Secretary."
"Jersey, this 7th day of September 1867"
A list follows of the 867 names of those who contributed

 He died in March 1874, in his seventy-third year, and was succeeded by his son, Mr. J.F.G. Le Bas, and his grandson, Mr. Eugene J. Arnold, who were in partnership till 1877, when Mr. Le Bas, owing to ill health, retired. Mr. Arnold had helped in the business some time before his grandfather`s death. The following table shows the number of animals shipped by the firm up to 1876, and by Mr. E.J. Arnold afterwards, to England, America, New Zealand, Australia, and France:-

Year     Cows    Bulls Total 
 1873      1179 56  1235
 725 24 749
 1875.......     918  49  967
 1876.......      1113  44 1157
 1877.......        1025 50 1075
 1878.......        1199 61 1260
 1879.......         830  37 867

Mr. Michael Fowler had four sons, three of whom took to the business -Edward Philip Parsons Fowler, of Southampton; Lawrence Parsons Fowler, of Little Bushey Farm; and Percival Henry Fowler, of Watford. Mr. Edward P.P. Fowler helped his father when a boy; he was a good hand at plating the cows and usually travelled with them to London and through the country. In course of time he started business on his own account; and for twenty-eight years resided in Jersey, leaving the island about ten years since to reside in SOuthampton. Of the three brothers he does the largest business, and makes about forty passages a year. The breed he considers has greatly improved; whilst prices have almost doubled during the forty years he has been in the trade. The horns and head of the animals in particular have become neater, and the form of the udder is greatly altered for the better.
 The greatest number ever taken over by him was 128, on board a small boat called the "Calpe"; and the "Atalanta" is said, on one occasion, to have brought over 137. Once, when trade was very good, 71 head were sold at Southampton fair. On another occasion, in the days before steamboats came into use, he had a number of cows and several casks of cider on board a sailing ship. The vessel was thirteen days out, and, running short of water, the captain tapped the cider casks. So much did the cows approve of the cider, that they persistently refused to drink water several days after landing.
 When a young man, Mr. E.P.P. Fowler was wrecked off Yarmouth; and again, in 1873, off the coast of France, when the "Germany" was lost. He had then on board 36 cows, 4 rams, 22 dogs, and poultry of all kinds for America. The vessel calling for French emigrants, fell into the hands of a bad pilot, and was wrecked near the Gironde; Mr. Fowler got squeezed between the ship and the life-boat; and was picked up insensible and taken on to Lisbon. His cargo, valued at about £1600, was entirely lost; indeed, this was the case with everything save  his pipe and the clothes he was wrecked in. A scar on his leg will bear testimony to the occurrence to the end of his days.
 To America Mr. E.P.P. Fowler has made many passages. He has sold  cows in New Orleans (where for fifteen years there was a good trade), Philadelphia, Mobile, Baltimore, Cincinnati, Boston, and New York. There is scarcely a large or county town in England which he has not visited, and in which he has not sold cattle. Mr. Duncan in Buckinghampshire bought 113 cows from him. The Rev. John Hill and Mr. Kenyon were good buyers for many years in Shropshire. A great many cattle were sold about Brigg in Lincolnshire; whilst Banbury, Oxford, Birmingham, Derby, Peterborough, Bishops Stortford, and Colchester have all proved excellent centres. The south of Scotland, about Lauder sale for them in all the large towns in Ireland, particularly Dublin and Belfast.
 Her Majesty, at Osborne , and the Duke of Richmond, at Goodwood, have been supplied for many years; and Sit Tatton Sykes in Yorkshire, Sir John Tyrell in Essex, and Sir Richard Bulkeley in Wales, were also old customers. Sir Richard had a great taste for the breed; and three of his best cows were painted by a celebrated artist. This pictures was afterwards given to Mr. Fowler. It represents three beautiful animals, similarly marked, but of different colours. One is a black and white; another a brownish red and white; and the third a grey and white with a darkish face. The white marks are a star on the forehead, a large patch over the top of the shoulders, another on the loin and under the belly, with white hind legs. The black and white and the grey cows have the white rim round the muzzle, but the brown one has not. These colours corroborate an old story on the Island, that no calf was considered good without the star, the white shoulders, loin, and belly.
 Mr. Lawrence P. Fowler has retained most of his father`s old customers, and has been appointed a judge in Guernsey. He supplies the Royal Dairy at Windsor, and many other large establishments. The Duke of Atol`s and the Earl of Rosslyn`s herds in Scotland were also kept up by his importations. About forty animals are sent annually to Edinburgh, where there is a ready sale for him. Several have gone to Hamburg and the Continent, and large shipments were sent to Canada in 1868. It has been a frequent occurrence for families going out to Australia to take a cow on board with them.
 Mr. Percival H. Fowler has sent a good many to America and Canada, as well as to different parts of England; and is supplied in Jersey by Mr. F. Le Brocq, of St. Peters. I have gone thus fully into the business of the Messrs. Fowler, inasmuch as it was through them that the Islands Cattle have spread of late years throughout the United Kingdom.
 There are but few other dealers. Mr. H.J. Cornish, of Thornford Sherborne, Sorsetshire, is the largest. His grandfather commenced the business about 1836; and his father, ten years later, settled and farmed in St. Saviours, sending over a good number of cattle, which went chiefly into the counties of Dorset, Somerset, Vilts, Gloucester, and Devon; several, too, have been sent to Waterford in Ireland.
 The verdict of these men is that some of the Jerseymen (as in all other countries) are not quite trustworthy. The dealers prefer buying in-calf-heifers, as dry in-calf cows have  so often turned out with defective udders. The Jersey Herd Book caused an inquiry and demand for pedigree stock. When animals were sold, in many instances they were named, as well as their sires and dams, off hand. No records of these sales and names were kept, and a short time afterwards the transaction was forgotten.
 On the other hand, it is right to put on record, that the Jerseymen consider that the dealers (whom the Americans do not consider reliable) have had a very fine trade, and that they make a great deal more money of the stock than they pay for them. But in this part of the case, it should not be forgotten that the dealers take all the risk of shipping, travelling, and selling the animals in this country; and that it is a question whether the breed would ever have become so numerous and so widely known as it is at the present time, had it not been for the perseverance, the judgment, and the labour that these men have applied to their business.
 Mr. Philip Dauncey, of Horwood, may justly claim to be the father of Jersey breeders in England. Although now in his eighty-fifth year, his memory is still clear, and his zeal and activity for the improvement of the breed and for developing its production of butter are as great as ever. His private herd book is full of quaint and instructive remarks, exceedingly interesting to those engaged in breeding Jerseys. With a great taste for rural pursuits, a keen sportsman, and a rare lover of a good horse, he went to reside at Swanbourne in 1821. He kept there a Suffolk cow, which gave 21 quarts of milk; and one day, riding near Watford, he saw a "little lemon fawn cow with white round her nose," which took his fancy. This cow he afterwards bought from Mr. Fowler and called by the name of "Pug". She gave 11 quarts of milk; yet it was found that she made 10½ lbs. of butter against 10¼ lbs. from the Suffolk; both of which had calved in August. His choice of a dairy breed was at once made. Four years later he went to live at Horwood and immediately bought Alderney cows from Mr. Fowler and friends in the district. This was the beginning of a herd; which, forty-two years later, attracted noblemen and gentlemen from all parts to witness its dispersion - an event which was considered at its time one of the greatest achievements of a breeder`s skill which had ever occurred in England.
 A few particulars regarding the introduction of some of the other cows may be useful. Brunette, the ancestress of Mr. Gilbey`s Ban, which many considered the best cow at the sale, was a great favourite and her blood permeated the whole herd. Mr. Dauncey heard of her dam as a wonderful cow, which had made seventeen pounds of butter in one week: He rode thirty miles to see her. He found her an old ugly cow of eleven years, a patchy red and white, with one hip down, cock-horned, three-teated, and barren. He inquired of her owner, Mr. Wight, of Blakesley, if the story of her yield of butter was correct. "I can answer for sixteen pounds," said he, "but when I was away my servants paid me for seventeen." Twenty-five guineas was asked for this cow," old, three-teated, and barren;" and Mr. Dauncey declined to buy her.Some time afterwards, while hunting with the Duke of Grafton, he heard that a cow belonging to the Rev. Mr. Clarke, at Cold Higham, was an extraordinary butter maker; and on pulling up at the farm to look at her, Mr. Dauncey at once identified his old acquaintance Mr. Wight`s cow. Knowing of  Welch 930, a very good young bull, which he had bred, hard by, he offered Mr. Clarke, as she was then fresh calved, £3 for her next calf if he would send the cow to his bull. The produce was Brunette; she was calved in March 1833, and turned out a beaturiful and most useful cow, producing altogether fourteen calves. After breeding her last calf, on the 15th April, 1850, she went to the brook to drink, and, being old and weakly, another cow pushed her over; her body dammed up the little stream, which soon flowed over her head and drowned her. Brunette milked well to the last.
 Violet was another celebrated cow; she came from Col. Le Couteur`s herd in May 1845; and Negress, another favourite, was black, and given to Mr. Dauncey, when a calf, by Col. Pigott, who imported her dam when in calf to an Island prize bull. The dam of the broken-coloured cow Whaddon, Mr. Dauncey considered an Alderney and not a Jersey; she was sent to Mr. Selby Lowndes`s father by Mr. Le Masurier as something choice. Pope 652 was Mr. Dauncey`s first bull, and came in 1826 from Mr. Michael Fowler, from whom another Island bull, Fowler 335, was obtained thirty years later. Lethe and Wasp were two of his choicest cows. ALthough disinclined to exhibit, yet Mr. Dauncey showed these, as well as another cow, two heifers, and a bull, when the Royal show was held at Windsor. The judges, however, only commended Lethe and one of the heifers, considering them too large for the breed. Their portraits, as well as a number of others then forming the herd, exist to show what a beautiful stock it then was. But the sweets of revenge came in 1870, when Mr. Pulley exhibited, at the Royal show at Oxford, Vixen, which hed had bought at the Horwood sale, and won the first prize with her.
 The herd at Horwood, as a rule, was kept up to fifty cows, which generally yielded, in butter alone, "a thousand a year". The butter always went to London, and for many years Her Majesty`s table was supplied with it. Careful measurement has often shown fourteen pounds weekly from one cow, indeed in one instance sixteen pounds was obtained. The greatest yield was the first week in June 1867, when the entire herd of fifty cows made 10½ lbs. each cow and 9½ lbs. over. The average produce the same year from the whole herd, was "within the slightest fraction of 7 lbs. per head per week, dry or milking." Twentytwo quarts was the highest record from any one cow in one day; this was accredited to Elk. Another calculation was that it required an acre and a half of pasture for each cow, and nearly the same area of meadow to produce hay for winter feeding. Mr. Dauncey was frequently tempted to sell; but so careful was he of his breed that he would never part with a cow in calf, unless he had the calf back, and it was a very rare occasion that he allowed a bull to be sold. Occasionally he would give one away to a friend. Mr. Courtauld, in Essex, brought some cattle prior to the sale, and successfully exhibited them at the Essex show. The Germans took quite a fancy to his cattle some years ago; and several were purchased to go to the continent. One bull went to Tasmania; and an Australian laid the foundation of a herd in Melbourne by purchasing nine heifers and a bull calf.
 At last increasing years, declining health, and domestic bereavement induced Mr. Dauncey to offer the entire herd by auction. So strong, however, was his love for his cows that,  feeling better, he withdrew the sale when announced for the spring. Autumn`s falling leaf again shook his resolution; and on  the 24th October, 1867, the herd was actually sold.
 An immense company assembled to witness the dispersion of "this farrenowned herd of Channel Island cattle," which was held to be "unrivalled for their symmetry, colour and milking properties." An eye-witness graphically described them: *[See "Mark Lane Express", Oct. 28, 1867] Nothing but greys, as they are termed, have been admissible at Horwood; although with certain shades, from the light-reddish tint to the duns, fawns, smoke-coloured with black markings, black tongues, and tan muzzles. The produce of whole-coloured Jersey bulls pretty generally take after their sires in this respect; while the preference for a grey herd has nothing further to recommend it than a fancy. The lemon and white and other parti-coloured cows from the Channel Islands are quite as good milkerss, and, if any thing, they show more style and breeding than their quakercoated sisters. Mr. Dauncey, however, has been a breeder rather than a buyer; in which way he has acquired more size and constitution; but, together with the higher development of these qualities, an unmistakable coarseness is apparent. In going through the herd, the first thing that struck the visitor was their fine size and level looks. There were but few of those ragged razor-backed bags of bones, so often supposed to typify good milkers; but most of the cows carried some flesh, with thick kindly coats, and other such attributes of the hardy healthy animal. Imposing as the Horwood Alderneys looked in their standings, they improved immensely upon the eye when led into the ring. What with their free graceful carriage and kindly placid manners, they bore about them the very impress of highly-bred but not over-bred animals. Long and low, level bu no fat, their symmetry and condition were equally admirable. No wonder that the squire is loth to part with them, now that he has fashioned them, as it were, all of a family - for to sketch one is to portray the whole herd. The same darkpointing of the same sober garments is the very livery of the tribe; set off by the gamely tanned muzzle, the blood-like necks, and light deerlike limbs and movements. When the coarseness does crop up, we note it in a thick, ungainly, and often gaudy horn, or yet more in the harsh awkward setting-on the tail."
 The herd was scattered far and wide -into Berks, Hertfordshire, Northamptonshire, Essex, Surrey, Wilts, Hereford, Stafford, and Yorkshire. Five Dukes had purchased at one time or another. A misfortune, however, befell the Duke of Northumberland`s lot, at Sion House. The cows were tethered as on the Island, but they soon got loose and broke their necks over a hawhaw; while the bull strayed into the hot-houses, and disported himself by breaking the glass.
 Mr. Dauncey still keeps some cows; and with the materials on the farm, and Colonel 189, a fine bull from Sir R.T. Gilpin, if years be spared him, his old hand not having lost its cunning, he may yet raise another herd from the remnants that were left.
 Most of the herds in the county take their rise from Horwood. The herd at Whaddon is, however, of anterior date to that at Horwood. Unfortunately no records have been kept of it; and even the bulls in use during the season 1879 were unnamed. In the "Agriculture of Bucks`"*[By the Rev. St. John Priest,  Secretary to the Norfolk Agricultural Society, 1810] it is stated that "the Rev. Mr. Rush, of Stone, had two Alderney cows (one a calf of the other), which for a considerable part of the year gave eleven pounds of butter each per week. Mr. W. Lowndes of Whaddon, has one or two Suffolk cows, and keeps Alderney cow as well; and it is allowed that he gets more and better butter from them, than his neighbours do from the Holderness." The present herd consists of about twenty cows, fawn and grey in colour, very even, short-legged, deep-bodied, handsome animals; showing the characteristics of the true-bred English Jersey. Occasionally an imported bull is used; and then home-bred ones follow; and they are frequently kept till seven years old. A large number of bulls have been distributed throughout the country from this herd. The stud of hunters, the immense pack of hounds, the aviary of canaries, golden pheasants, peafowl, and other varieties of the feathered tribe, all show that Whaddon is a great and quiet place for breeding, and that what it breeds is true-bred.
 Col. Sir R.T. Gilpin`s herd at Hockliffe is smaller, and was originally obtained , in 1845, from Mar. Dauncey; some animals were also bought from Sir John M. Burgoyne and other stocks, as well as from the Fowlers. It has, however, been kept pretty much to Mr. Dauncey`s blood through Mr. Bassett`s stock and animals bred from the Horwood herd.
 The late Mr. W.G. Duncan`s herd at Bradwell ranked next to that at Horwood; it had been bred upon the farm since 1849, from imported cows. Bulls were also imported or bred from imported cows; Gipsy, the dam of one of them, yielded 17 lbs. of butter for several weeks after calving, and gave 21 quarts of milk a day. Medora, a very favourite cow with a fine udder, gave 20 quarts daily for a long time after calving. The Dauncey blood was introduced after the sale, as well as a strain from Whaddon. Like Horwood, the herd was celebrated for its extraordinary yields of butter. In twenty-two years an average of 29 cows realized, from udder produce alone £14.722, or about an annual profit of £23 for each cow. Colour was studied, and the cows were generally of a uniform grey fawn with black points; should a little white occasionally crop out, the animals were usually drafted, unless they showed extraordinary dairy properties. In size they were a little smaller than those at Horwood, and, except one tribe with rather cocked horns, showed little coarseness. Mr. Duncan was of opinion that after the imported animals were acclimatized they became very hardy, and good handlers, feeding quickly and heavily when dry. The herd was sold April 24, 1873; it attracted a large company, and the result was very gratifying, both to the owner and the public. It averaged £40 5s. 2d. for 44 head, 21 of which were cows.
 Lord Chesham succeeded to Latimer in 1850. Alderneys and a mixed breed of dairy cattle were then kept there, but on his lordship`s accession the mixed breeds were sold and replaced by whole-coloured Jerseys. Mr. Duncan sent over a bull which was called The Bull; as on other large estates, no record of the breeding of the herd was kept until later years, when fresh animals were purchased; indeed, whenever any herd of long standing and importance has been dispersed, a specimen or two of it has generally been purchased for Latimer. Some animals have also been imported. It is a large, well known herd; and its blood has been much spread about the country by draft sales  and young bulls. Mr. Coleman`s herd at Stoke Park, which was mainly dispersed in 1879, had been bred from Mr. Dauncey`s, Mr. Duncan`s, and Mr. Simpson`s stocks. The cows generally were of large frame, principally silver greys, and many of them great milkers.
 The herd at Stewkley Grange is also another old herd i Buckinghamshire. It was commenced by Mr. Palmer about 1845, by purchases from Mr. M. Fowler and from neighbouring stocks. Bulls from these cows were used till 1854, when a bull was bought of Mr. Selby Lowndes; and a son of this bull and grandsons were afterwards used. In 1869 a bull of Dauncey blood came from the Rev. Dr. Booth; some cows were sent to the sires at Whaddon, and bulls from Mr. Duncan`s, r. Gilbey`s, and Mr. Simpson`s herds followed. On the death of Mr. Palmer in January 1874, the herd passed into possession of his widow, Mrs. C.M. Palmer, who, with aid of her sons, still keeps up its high character. The Rev. Dr. Booth, at Stone, and Mr. Acton Tindal, at Aylesbury, both kept good herds as far back as 1860. They were bred from Mr. Dauncey`s stock. Dr. Booth had one celebrated cow called Dauncey, that gave 26 quarts daily. Mr. F. Bassett`s herd near Leighton is of more recent date; indeed it took its rise at the Horwood sale, and has been recruited from the leading stocks of the day. The Duke of Grafton`s herd at Wakefield Lodge, the Duke of Bedford`s at Woburn, and that belonging to the Righ Hon. J.G. Hubbard at Addington are all the growth of the last twenty years, and were increased from the Horwood sale. For Woburn were purchased some of the best of Mr. Gilbey`s stock; and at the close of the year 1879 it numbered 114 head, 30 of which were cows. As at Latimer, Hallingbury, and elsewhere, great value is attached to Jersey beef at Woburn. Steers are made and fed at an early age; they come quickly to maturity, and produce most excellent beef of fine colour and flavour.
 Lord Camoys has a beautiful herd at Stonor which has been entirely bred from stock imported by Messrs. Fowler during the last thirty years: it has not been exhibited, nor has any record been kept, the dairy having been the chief aim, and an assurance that the bulls used were thoroughbred. One bull bred by Mr. G.A. Fuller was used here. Mr. Middleton`s herd at Cutteslowe, and Mr. Salter`s at Egrove, both near Oxford, were commenced by purchases of imported animals from Mr. E.P. Fowler in 1868. Mr. Middleton keeps about 25 cows, and first used Mr. Dauncey`s bull Dolphin 242, which made a great impression on the stock; his sons from imported cows have since been used.
 The late Mr. Edward Marjoribanks succeeded to the herd of Mr. Stewart Marjoribanks at Bushey Grove, who kept imported Alderneys for many years, and used Messrs. Fowler`s bulls at Bushey. Landscape, the highest priced cow, 100 gs., at the Horwood sale, came here, and others from Mr. Duncan. A silvergrey bull, called Lothair 509, was bought of Mr. Lowndes, and is reported to have been particularly thick-fleshed and handsome; he was sold to a butcher in Watford market for £44. Attention was paid here more to feeding than to the dairy. A steer is said to have been sold by auction, when twenty months old, for £37 10s. The herd of 45 head was sold in September 1874, and averaged £35 6s 1d. The herd at Charleywood, near Watford, belonging to Mr. Barnes, has been kept up for several years, mostly from imported animals, to which Lord Chesham`s  bulls have been used. It has been successfully exhibited at the Royal and other shows.
 Lord Dacre has also an old herd at The Hoo, Welwyn, bred during the last twenty years from imported stock; occasionally a bull from Audley End or other old established herds has been used. The herd at Luton Hoo is of later date, and also descended from imported animals.
 No herd has, however, been more distinguished or realized higher prices than that belonging to Mr. Walter Gilbey. Its rise occurred in a singular manner. Owing to delicate health he was advised to take new milk. Some Alderneys were bought by that capital judge, the late Mr. Arthur Nockolds, from the Wendon Hall herd, and kept in London; on removing into Essex, a herd was established for the use of the family. It is as well to mention here, that one of the cheapest commodities in a town house, where a large family resides, is a dairy cow. Mr. Gilbey believes good new milk to be not only a luxury, but indispensable to the health of children. In establishing the herd at Hargrave Park, any cows showing inferior dairy properties, or not approaching his standard of excellence, were sold or given away; and he became an excellent customer for very choice animals; indeed only the best were good enough. Selections were specially made by Mr. Nockolds for him at the shows on the Island. At Mr. Dauncey`s and Mr. Duncan`s sales he was a purchaser; and bulls from these stocks, as well as imported animals, were used.A careful record of the dairy produce was kept, and the animals were successfully exhibited at the Essex county shows; but as the inferior sums awarded in prizes attracted but few animals, Mr. Gilbey supplemented the prizelist by special donations to the Channel Island classes. This led to more numerous exhibits; and the show gradually became celebrated for the excellence of this breed of cattle. His animals were afterwards sent to the Royal and other shows; and rarely returned home without a prize or commendation. The stock becoming very numerous, drafts were sent into Bishops Stortford and sold by auction; and these draft animals, which were in themselves of a high character, became spread about the district and produced excellent stock. Names of three letters were chosen for cows; and their produce took this name with the addition of a second and third syllable as Fan, Fancy, Fanciful.
 Annual draft sales were afterwards held at Hargrave Park; the sale in May 1874 was largely attended; seventeen yearling heifers selling for over fifty guineas each. In the following December the herd was reluctantly dispersed, in consequence of the termination of the lease and death of the owner of the estate. Extraordinary prices were obtained. The Duke of Bedford gave 255 gs. for a three-years old cow, and an in-calf heifer brought the same sum. Six cows realized 1010 gs., and the eighteen averaged £90 16s 6d. The heifers and calves also sold very high; the herd of fifty averaging £64 16s 0d. The celebrated cow Milkmaid was bought by Mr. C.L. Sharpless for Philadelphia, U.S.A., for 155gs. Her best yield of milk in AMerica has since been 22½ quarts *[It is doubtful if this is the English imperial quart of 40 fluid ounces; the quantity of butter obtained indicates that it is not.] per day, and 11 lbs. 3 ozs. of butter per week. This was the second occasion when Americans bought publicly; some animals having been previously  purchased at Mr. Duncan`s sale for Mr. P. Le Clair, of Vermont. Hitherto they had generally purchased exhibited animals at the Royal and other shows.
 Although Mr. Gilbey`s herd was in existence several years, yet that belonging to Mr. J. Archer Houblon, of Great Hallingbury, was established many years before. It was commenced as far back as 1831, with stock from Lord Braybrooke`s herd at Audley End and Lady Canning`s at Hallingbury Place. Many animals were also bought from Messrs Fowler, and occasionally Mr. Gilbey`s bulls were used.
 The Earl of Rosslyn`s herd was taken to Easton Lodge in 1866; it was originally started by his lordship`s father, about 1840, at Hampton Court, with imported animals, and very carefully kept. In 1850 it was removed to Dysart House, Fifeshire, where it numbered about twenty head; but, the climate being severe, the herd got low. When Lord Rosslyn succeeded, he found seven or eight cows, which he brought down into Essex, and imported a young bull. There the herd considerably increased, and has become one of the most beautiful in the county. Mr. Gilbey`s stock was successfully introduced with a view to retain the whole colours as well as the great dairy properties.
 The herd at Wendon Hall is also of long standing, having been in the Cornwell family for about forty years. Animals were bought in the neighbourhood of Bishops Stortford, and the stock has been improved and kept up by the use of Lord Braybrooke`s bulls. Mr. W. Cornwell also had a herd at Bishops Stortford; it was commenced by his father and crossed with Mr. Gilbey`s stock. Mr. T.N. Miller, in the same neighbourhood, has bred and successfully exhibited animals at the Royal and County shows. The Rev. John Collin, of Rickling, imported two cows in 1851, and used Mr. Gilbey`s bulls. Mr. W.J. Beadel`s herd at Springfield Lyons was bred from the stocks belonging to Mr. W. Gilbey, Mr. G. Simpson, and other breeders; it was successfully shown at the Essex and Hertfordshire shows, and when dispersed in 1877 averaged £38 18s for 37 head. But the county of Essex has long been a stronghold for the ALderney cow. As previously shown, Mr. Courtauld bought some animals privately form Mr. Dauncey. Mr. Badham, Mr. Vaizey, and others bred from imported stock; and that well known agriculturalist, the late Mr. Fisher Hobbs, was a great admirer of the breed. In 1863 he wrote a letter, which was read by Mr. Horn before the Eye Farmers`Club, as follows:-"I send you a correct account of the produce of two Alderney cows which I kept at my own residence, Boxted Lodge in 1861. I had no other cows there during that time. You will observe that the produce for these two cows was kept separate from the period of their calving until the 12th of July. After that time the cream was mixed. The total produce of these two cows in thirty-four weeks was 800 lbs., besides what cream was used in my house."
 From Essex the breed crept into Suffolk. The Rev. Morton Shaw at Rougham, has taken great interest in it, for more than twentyfive years, owning and breeding many fine animals; and Col. Wilson, at Stowlangtoft, has been a buyer at the most important sales, using principally the Dauncey blood as sires. In Norfolk, Mr E. Birkbeck has kept a herd at Horstead since 1868; and previously for seven years in Surrey. This has been bred from Mr. Fuller`s and Mr. Gurneu`s stocks, and bulls were  used from the Duke of Richmond`s and Mr. Selby Lowndes` herds, as well as imported animals from Messrs. Fowler. The late Rev. J.N. Micklethwait also had a choice herd near Norwich. At the Norfolk fat stock show in 1877 much talk was occasioned by the great merit of an Alderney steer* [This steer was bred by Mr. Horatio Wortley of Frettenham, and sold to Mr. W. Gray of Felthorpe to be killed; he was by a bull of Mr. Birkbeck`s from an imported cow. Mr. Wortley also sold in 1879, a young steer eighteen months old, of his own breeding, for £25] which was sold to be killed for £42 at the age of two years and eleven months; it killed well, and weighed 72 stones of 14lbs.
 Into Yorkshire, the great home of the Shorthorn, many animals have been taken, but very few kept pure. Major Thursby bought several in Jersey; and took them to the neighbourhood of Pontefract, where they were bred for several years. In 1869 he wrote to the Rev. Dr. Booth of Stone, that he preferred Mr. Dauncey`s breed, crossed by stock bred in Jersey, as they then showed more quality and were not so coarse. The late Mr. Brown also kept a herd at Rossington, which has since been continued by Mr. R.J. Streatfeild. It was added to from Mr. Gilbey`s and other sales. Even over the border Sir John Marjoribanks has kept a herd at Lees, near Coldstream, since 1862; and they may be found in many a homestead at the Lothians.
 Around Manchester they have also had a home. Sir Thomas de Trafford, exhibited a bull at the Royal Show at Manchester, in 1869. Mr. Pilling also took some imported animals, as well as some of Mr. Gurney`s stock, into Cheshire, where the Rev. W.D. Fox kept a herd for upwards of thirty years. Mr. C.H. Bakewell has long kept a small select herd at Quarndon, Derby. In Shropshire, Mr. Kenyon, at Pradoe, has one of the oldest established herds in the country, the farm-book showing dates of birth of Alderney cows since 1816. Col. Wilson`s bulls from Stowlangtoft in Suffolk were recently used here. The Rev. J. Hill`s herd at Hawkstone, Shrewsbury, has been bred pure, chiefly from imported stock, since 1826. Some animals have also been kept pure by the Rev. C.W. Grove, in Gloucestershire; and Col. Barrows at Hagley, and Mr. H.P. Parkes at Belbroughton, have each kept pure herds in Worcestershire since 1870.
 In Dorsetshire, Mr. G.D. Wingfield Digby`s herd is one of the oldest and most successful in the county, having been exhibited for many years; it was comenced over twenty years ago with importations made by Messrs Fowler and Cornish. About thirty cows and two bulls are kept ; the bulls are usually imported animals, and changed every two or three years. In the south of Devon, Lord Poltimore, Mr. Scratton, and a few others are keeping the breed pure.
 South of the Thames they have existed from the beginning of the century. Mr. John Middleton of Lambeth, wrote as far back as 1807, "that in the pleasure grounds of gentlemen, the Suffolk, ALderney, Jersey, Guernsey, Welsh, and Scotch breeds are most to be met with. The Shorthorn breed are almost the only sort kept by cow-keepers for the produce of milk for sale." Mr. Thomas Hepburn has kept a numerous herd at Clapham Common since 1856; and bred from both imported stock and English herds, which he considers are distinct in character except as to quality and quantity of milk. He is also of opinion that the English climate makes them more robust and larger in frame; that for the park, where large herds are kept,  and the males grazed for the butcher, the Englsih-bred bull is the most useful; but the suburban residence is not complete without a couple of Jersey cows, where , for the richness of their milk and their great docility and beauty, they are so much admired, and for this supply importations from the Island must continue.
 Mr. Fuller`s herd near Dorking is, however, one of the oldest in Surrey. He originally got some animals from Mr. Slade at Eltham; and in 1848, while hunting in Buckinghamshire, he so much admired Mr. Dauncey`s beautiful stock, that he bought a couple of heifers, and used bulls from Mr. Duncan, as well as his homebred ones, and occasionally imported bulls. In 1865 the herd was sold without any particulars, at very ssatisfactory prices, and was the means of starting and improving other good herds. Mr. Gisbey`s celebrated cow Milkmaid, whose dam Grasshopper lived until twenty years old, was bred by Mr. Fuller, who in the course of another year began again to gather a herd together; it now consists of about twenty cows, fawns and greys, of great uniformity and character. Mr. Gurney`s herd near Reigate, like Mr. A.O. Wilkinson`s at Redhill, bred for whole colors, was commenced in 1855, when he went to reside at Nutwood. His father kept a herd in Essex about fifty years ago. He was a purchaser at Mr. Dauncey`s sale; and bought many animals from Mr. Fowler and from neighbours in the district. Home-bred bulls have been used; and cows sent over to Mr. Simpson`s celebrated herd at Wray Park; which, like that of Mr. Gilbey, has been gradually selected whenever an opportnity offered of purchasing first class animals. The best of Mr. Fowler`s importations have also gone to him; and the bulls have been principally selected from the best breeders in Jersey, or bred at home. Of late years this herd has been eminently successful at the Royal and principal shows in the kingdom, and many animals have been sold at high prices, some going to America and Australia. Great attention is paid to the yield of milk at Wray Park; and the following table shows the produce of one of the best cows, Luna, calved February 20, 1874; she produced her first calf January 1st, 1876, and yielded that month 701 lbs- *[Ten pounds weight of milk may be taken as equal to 4 quarts or one gallon imperial measure, and one pound of butter can ordinarily be made from about 15 lbs. of milk; but this very much depends upon the food of the animal and richness of its milk.]; her second calf was born on the 1st of April 1877, it sucked its dam several days, the milk was weighed on the 10th, from which time to February 1878 she yielded milk as follows:

Luna`s first calf calved January 1, 1876 Luna`s second calf calved April 1, 1877 
  lbs  lbs
 January 8th to 31st. 1876    701 April 10th to 30th 1877      681
 February................     901 May......................    1341
 March...................   876   June......................   1352
 April...................     831 July......................   1176
 May.....................    822  August....................   1052
 June....................     810 September.................    785
 July....................     749 October...................    749
 August..................    656  November..................    768
 September...............  662   December..................    547
 October.................     597 January 1878..............  502
 November................    462  February..................    249
 December.....                              471     9202 lbs.
 February, dry on the 10th    98  
  8984 lbs.  

In Sussex, the Duke of Richmond has long had a herd at Goodwood, bred from imported stock. The Earl of Egmont at Cowdray Park, imported five heifers and a bull from Jersey in 1847; and a first prize was won with this stock at the Royal show at Windsor 1851. Bulls were imported from the Island every fourth year; and i 1874 another importation of eight heifers was made.The herd is both uniform and numerous. Col Cavendish also kept a herd at West Stoke, near Chichester, since 1845, breeding chiefly from imported bulls. One of the most noted herds in Sussex was that belonging to the late Mr. Dumbrell [Coleman: Dumbrill] at Ditchling. He kept a very large stock for twenty years near Brighton, and imported most of his animals, bulls as well as cows, from Jersey, which breed he considered gained the most strength, size, and constitution without losing its characteristics for the dairy, and was better suited to our climate. He adopted the Island method of tethering the cows, and so successful was his management that he was solicited to read a paper on the subject before the London Farmers`Club in 1862. At the Newcastle Royal show his animals were very successfully exhibited.
 The breed abounds in Hampshire; but little record has been kept of their breeding. The late Mr. Duff, at Town Hill, bred from imported stock; Mr. Cadus succeeded to this country. Sir A.K. Macdonald`s herd at Woolmer, and Mrs. Malcolm`s at Beechwood, Mr. C.F. Wilson`s at Tatchbury Manor, and Mr. C.B. Dixon`s at Shirley Warren, are also of high standing and mostly bred from imported animals. Several prizes were won at the Hants and Berks show, and the stock was widely dispersed when sold in 1877.
 The value of this breed for dairy produce seems to have been known on the Isle of Wight from the earliest periods. The Rev. Mr. Warner wrote the Agricultural Survey of the Island in 1794, and remarked that "the cows are mostly of the Alderney breed, though mixed with English sorts. They are extremely profitable, some of them giving during part of the summer 10 lbs. of butter per week. It is a matter of surprise that this breed is not more generally known in other parts of the kingdom than appears to be the case. The original price of a good Alderney cow, at the place where she is imported, is seldom more than 8 guineas; she is equally hardy with our own breed, consumes less provender, and certainly yields as rich milk, the cream of which gives a richness to butter not observable in what is made from the English cow". Her Majesty`s herd at Osborne has been supplied by Mr. Fowler; bulls have been imported and also used from Col. Cavendish`s and Mr. Fuller`s herds. Mr. Pittis had for some years a herd near Newport; Mr. J.R. Fisk also keeps a herd at Brighstone, to which the Town Hill stock has been used; and Mr. Hammick`s at Mirables is bred entirely from animals specially selected on the Island. Messrs Arnold`s of West Meon, was originally bred by their father in the Isle of Weight more than half a century ago; and he took great delight in them. In 1835 he removed to West Meon in Hampshire, where the best of the herd was taken. It has there  been kept pure ever since by the use of imported bulls, and occasionally an exchange with Messrs. Mortimer, whose herd dates back to imported stock since 1841. Messrs. Arnold keep about ten cows, which are very rich, of good quality and symmetry, and exceedingly uniform.
 The reports of the Judges at the Shows of the Royal Agricultural Society of England commenced in 1862. They differ greatly from those published by the Jersey Society; and refer more to the appearance of the animals exhibited, than to principles, for the guidance of breeders. They are to be found in the Journals of the Society. It was suggested by the Judges in 1865 to divide the Jerseys and Guernseys into separate classes. This suggestion was repeated in 1869 and 1870, and after the classes were separated in 1871, the work of judging was much facilitated. In 1875 the judges emphatically pointed out that every encouragement should be given to increase and, if possible, to improve the produce of the Jersey and Guernsey cattle as dairy stock. The following year, the classes becoming so numerous, they wished to point out, for the consideration of the Council, the advisability of dividing for the futire, the heretofore existing heifer class into two distinct classes, viz heifers in milk or in calf above two years, and heifers not exceeding two years old. After the Liverpool Meeting in 1877, they recommended three additional classes for younger stock; and, in 1878, alluded to the proposed English Herd Book, and to the numerous entries at the Show, as indicating the increased number of animals that were now bred in the country, and the interest, especially for dairy purposes, that was being taken in them. Last year the Judges congratulated the Council on the great success which the expansion of the classes had given to animals of the Jersey and Guernsey breeds, and they recommended, if possible, the division of the heifers in milk from those in calf.

 I have dwelt somewhat at considerable length in this introduction on topics which may perkaps be thought superfluous. Yet it seemed a fitting opportunity to put together on record, all that can now be ascertained concerning the history, up to the present time, of this very useful breed of cattle. The first volume of its Herd Book seemed the most suitable repository for this accumulated information, before it became overlaid and lost. That the breed has extended, and is still likely to extend even more than it has hitherto done, is evident from the extraordinary increase in the number of animals exhibited at the various agricultural meetings throughout the country. The readiness of owners to exhibit Jersey Cattle may partially arise from the system of exhibiting the breed in a healthy natural breeding state; whereas most other breeds are invariably shown in a very high state of condition, which experience has proved to be damaging to the dairy properties, as well as the fecundity of the animal. In evidence of the great increase of the breed, I subjoin a table showing the number of the various races entered for the Great International Meeting of the Royal Agricultural Society of England at Kilburn, London, in July 1879:-

 Shorthorns................    179 Scotch Breeds 
 Herefords.................  63     Ayrshire................  29 
 Devons....................       56 Polled Galloway.........  10
 Sussex....................  95     Polled Angus or Aberdeen   18
 Longhorns.................      42 West Highland...........   3
 Norfolk & Suffolk Polled..    35  Kerry (Irish).............  29
 Guernseys.................  39 Welsh.....................   40
 Jerseys...................    253 Dairy Cattle..............   35
   Other British Breeds......   4



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