Edited by George E. Waring - [ Vol. 1 of the American Herd Book 1871]
Beauty and utility are, of course, very often combined. Variations from the fixed type are the rule rather than the exception in the breeding of a composite race like the Jerseys. Their excellences seem to have been derived from several sources, and, viewed by itself, this race might almost be regarded as a mixed one. It is only when compared with other races might almost be regarded as a mixed one. It is only when compared with other races that its typical individuality becomes manifest. However much a herd of Jerseys may vary among themselves, not one of them ever looks like a Shorthorn, an Ayrshire, or a native. Within the varying range of colour and form that the breed presents, there are many points, such as the black switches and the uniform hues, which may be singled out for the especial attention of the breeder, and may be made in a few generations much more permanent and conspicuous than they naturally are. While it would not be impossible, it would be extremely difficult to give prominence to two distinct features - to the large milking qualities and to the black points - at the same time. The difficulty of selection would be increased many fold. It would be possible, no doubt, to establish a herd of 15 lb cows with the leading fancy-colour points, but it would require a long time, great care, and probably an important sacrifice of form and fineness. Then again, by the time perfection had been attained, the question of colour might have come to be little regarded, or the fashion might have changed entirely to fawn and white colour, with white switches and light-coloured tongues. If we are to be fanciers in the sense in which those are who breed pigeons, then we may very properly set up a fancy standard, and breed to a hair. But if we are to take a farmer`s view of the subject, and breed for whatever will produce the most money, then we should by all means seek for such a large yield of yellow cream as will maintain the unquestioned superiority of the Jersey for the economical conversion of food into butter, and such striking typical beauty as shall keep her always the favorite cow for oornamental purposes - a beauty that does not depend on an adherence to arbitrary points, but on fineness of breeding, symmetry of form, variety and harmony of colour, and the deer-like characteristics of head and eyes for which the race is noted. Such a standard of beauty as this, admitting great variety of colour, allows us to seek our great milkers through a much wider range of animals.
The indications of great milking are the same with these animals as with all others, and it would be inappropriate to give, in an essay on a single breed, a treatise on the milch-cow at large. We all know by actual test, and most of us by observation, which are our best and richest milkers; we can form a pretty good opinion of the quality of the animals in our neighbours` herds. From among such of these best cows as are up to our standard of beauty we might select the dams of our future herds; and by always keeping the best and selling off all below the best, as well as occasionally some very good cow that has fallen away too much in point of beauty, we might be able, in time, to establish a stock of much greater excellence than any now existing. Success in such an undertaking requires not only a good deal of knowledge at the outset, and careful attention and study for years, but it demands that a standard be established at the commencement, from which no influence shall induce us to deviate. The points of excellence that are to be considered as absolutely essential should be as few as possible, but in such as we do adopt we should stop at nothing short of absolute perfection.
It is out of the question, of course, for a single writer or for any committee to fix the standard toward which all should breed. It is suggested, however, as a very good standard, in the absence of a better, to seek to raise cows of moderate size that will roduce 300 pounds of butter in a year, and that, while being of various colours, with a goodly proportion of white, should all be striking examples of the characteristic beauty of the race. For value and satisfaction to their owner, a herd of such cows might compete most favourable with a herd of solid French grays with black points, which, even with larger size, would yield only two-thirds the amount of butter.
While, so far as personal indications are concerned, more reliance is to be placed on the appearance of the cow than of the bull, in establishing a herd the bull is, of course, of infinitely more importance than any single cow, and he should be selected with even greater care, the decision resting less with his own appearance and points (through these, of course, should be unobjectionable) than with the character of his dam and both his granddams. The great cardinal principle of judicious breeding is expressed in the theory that "like begets like or the likeness of some ancestor." The more remote any ancestral imperfection may be, the less likely is it to reappear. But in the case of a bull, on which so much depends, there should be no glaring defect in the dams for at least two generations back, and, of course, the longer the pedigree in which we can trace only first-rate cows, the better by far will be our chances of success.
This suggests incidentally another point on which an erroneous opinio seems to prevail. It is considered of great advantage to a Jersey cow in America that she has a short pedigree. This is very well simply as an evidenced of pure Jersey blood, but it has no other signification. If a reliable pedigree can be given and the purity of every ancestor proven for ten generations, the animal has, so far as purity is concerned, every advantage of an imported one; while the assumptionis, and it will hold good in case of all our breeders who have kept accurate records for a long time, that the animal has been bred with more care, and consequently is intrinsically better, than one that has been bought in the market-place of St. Helier, without a pedigree or a history, and sold on arrival here for $300 or $400.
One great advantage that it is hoped will result from the establishment of this Herd Book is, the introduction of the elements of judgment and skill in the work of improving our butter-dairy cows. We shall henceforth be able to trace out the ancestors of animals offered for sale, and to learn something of their character; and we may have some better and more satisfactory guide in making our selections than the simple fact that the animal was bred on the Island of jersey, and that it has a solid colour and black points.
Whether we have or have not now in this country better animals than are to be found in Jersey is a disputed question; but that we have here ample material for the development of such herds as Jersey never saw cannot be doubted. In fact, a recent visitor to the island has stated that such a thing as a herd does not exist there, even the most celebrated breeders keeping but from two or three to a dozen animals all told. The care given to the race in so limited a region, where careful inspection is not out of the question, has resulted in its great improvement; and there are doubtless individual animals in Jerseys that it would be difficult, if not impossible, to equal here. These are by no means the animals that are sold for exportation. That the Jersey breeders do not claim for themselves great superiority for the development of the race may be inferred from the following quotation from the Report of the Committee of the Agricultural Separtment submitted to the Royal Jersey Society in 1868: "The Committee beg leave to call public attention to the results of careful breeding as practised by Mr. P. Dauncey, Horwood Rectory, Bucks, with his herd of Jersey cattle. These were sold, some time since, by auction, when sixty-nine head of stock realized a sum of 3,136 guineas. For instance, a cow three years old was sold for 100 guineas; a two-year-old heifer, 60 guineas; a bull, one year old, 60 guineas." in the same report it is stated that during the year one agent alone, Mr. Le Bas, had shipped from Jersey 2,041 head, representing a value of £29,000;" also, "That the first prize two-year-old heifer at the last May show was sold in Jersey for £38; and the first prize in yearlings fetched at a sale £42." While the sales from Jersey for exportation averaged about £14 per head, Mr. Dauncey`s sale averaged over 45 guineas per head, and his best animals far exceeded the prices fetched for first-prize animals in Jersey, though there is no doubt, other things being equal, that the purchasers of the Dauncey stock (there being no Jersey Herd Book in England) would have preferred imported animals. The conclusion, therefore, is most natural, that Mr. Dauncey, working with material derived only from Jersey, far exceeded the Jerseymen themselves in the value of good animals and good butter, and with ample material to start with, there is no reason why we may not in time produce a stock better than has yet been known.
The early importations of Jersey cattle into this country are most difficult to trace. The animals were then called Alderneys, and the same name was given to Guernsey cattle, of which a goodly number were brought over, and they seem to have been interbred somewhat indiscriminately.
The following is a copy of a paper kindly furnished by Col. Craig Biddle, of Philadelphia:
The earliest record of an Alderney cow in Pennsylvania, that I am aware of, will be found in Vol.IV,, page 155, of the Memoirs of the Philadelphia Society for Promotion of Agriculture. It is as follows.
I have upon my farm on the Delaware a cow of the Alderney breed, imported a short time since by Mr. Wurts. She has been fed in the usual way with potatoes, and during the last week the milk from her was kept separate, and yielded eight pounds of butter. The cow is a small animal, and is supported with less food than our ordinary stock.
By communicating this fact to the Society, it will oblige, etc.
Jan, 11, 1817 Richard Morris
P.S. The Cow is three years old.
To Roberts Vaux, sec of the Phila Society for Promoting Agriculture.
In a note on the same page, it is stated "that the cow above referred to is now in the possession of another member of the Agricultural Society; and after a fair trial made with her during last summer (1817), the superior richness of her milk, when compared with that of other cows, has been fully tested. She gave 9½ pounds of extremely rich, highly-coloured butter per week.
Another mention of the same cow will be found in the fifth volume of the same work, page 47, viz.:
Germantown, Oct. 20, 1818
With this you will receive a pound of butter made from the Alderney cow imported in 1815 by Maurice and William Wurts, and now in my possession. She calved on the 13th of last month, and is now in fine condition, running on excellent pasture of orchard grass and white clover, and gives on an average about 14 quarts of milk per day. From this quantity, during the week ending the 7th instant, we obtained 10 quarts of cream, which produce 8lbs 2oz of butter, and the week succeeding 10½ quarts, which gave 83/4 of the quality of the sample sent. You will perceive it is of so rich a yellow that it might be suspected that some foreign coloring matter had been added to it; but you may rely on it this is not the case. I may add that one of the good properties of this valuable breed of cattle is the ease with which the creamis churned, requiring but a few minutes to convert it into butter. When a proper opportunity occurs, I shall endeavour to ascertain the quantity and quality of butter to be obtained per week from the Kerry cow, imported this summer from Ireland, and the Brittany cow from France, both of which breeds I have pure.
I remain respectfully
Richard Peters, Esq.
In September 1840, three Alderney cows were purchased by the late Nicholas Biddle. They were imported from the Island of Guernsey, and brought to the port of New York in the schooner Pilot, Captain Beleir. They turned out to be remarkably fine animals. This stock, crossed by later importations is maintained in its purity at Andalusia, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, the country-seat of Mr. Biddle, and still in possession of his family.
The earlier importations made by Mr. R.L. Colt, of Paterson, New Jersey, were of Guernsey animals, or at least there were Guernsey animals among them. About fifteen years ago, he became satisfied of the superiority of the Jersey stock, and disposed of his Guernsey and made fresh importations. It has been alleged that the importations made by Mr. Cushing, of Watertown, Massachusetts, were in part Guernseys; but this has been authoritatively denied, and the Cushing herd has been proven to be of pure Jersey stock. The Guernsey animals in these earlier importations have been a source of great annoyance to the Committee in passing upon animals offered for entry. In many instances, fine animals, carefully bred, and believed by their owners to be pure Jersey, have had to be rejected because remotelyy tracing to the Biddle or the earlier Colt importations. Their rejection was, of course, no criticism on their quality.
The call for contribution for this essay was responded to by only two or three members, and it has seemed best to allow what they have written to influence the character of the essay rather than to be quoted into it with unavoidable repetition.
The request has been made that particular points in breeding and management might receive especial-attention; the idea being advanced that white colour indicates a deterioration of health, but there seem no sufficient foundation for the belief to warrant its incorporation here. On the contrary, from the polar bear to the white bantam, all races that are wholly or in part white seem to afford ample evidence of the entire compatibility of vigorous health with the absence of colour. That color has a physiological significance is not improbable; but what that significance is we are far from being able to say, and the practical relation of all such intricate physiological questions must be referred to a more advanced state of knowledge than our own. In like manner it has been stated that a bull whose tongue is black is more likely than another to impress his own characteristics on his offspring. A careful investigation of the evidence, which is within the reach of all, will surely prove that this theory is entirely without foundation. Sol long as black-tongued calves (the dams being of the same colour in both cases), the evidence essential to uphold the theory seems to be wanting.
It has been also suggested that this essay should include a treatise on the management of Jersey cows. Except with reference to their breeding, there seems to be no necessity for treatment different from that which all cows require, and to introduce a comprehensive article on dairy farming would be unnecessary, and would add too much to the size of the register.
If this breed has any peculiarity that requires special care, it is the persistence with which its better specimens hold out with their milk while pregnant. This tendency is surely to be encouraged within reasonable limits. If a cow can be made to yield a fair flow of milk up to within four weeks of her calving-time, and need go absolutely dry but two weeks, there is no question of the advantage of her doing so. That she should milk up to the very day of calving indicates certainly a good milk-making tendency; but it is at least not proven that such constant milking is not injurious.Persistent milking is a characteristic merit of the better class of Jersey cows, and it is of immense advantage, not only in the case of a single family cow, but in those used for the butter dairy. It is in all respects better that a cow should commence her flow at 10 quarts and not fall below 5 quarts a month before calving, than that she should give 20 quarts the first month, 10 quarts the third, and fall to 5 or 6 quarts when three months gone with calf, and to nothing two months later.
But few contributions have been made by members as to the butter-making quality of Jersey cattle.About two years ago, Mr. Charles M. Beach made a careful experiment with three pure Jersey cows, three grade cows, and three native cows, an experiment which was carefully conducted for a week. The animals were in essentially the same condition, and were kept on the same food. Each lot averaged about the same time from calving. It was found that to make one pound of butter the following quantity of milk from each sort of cow was required:
| 3 Pure Jerseys ...............................||6 1/3 quarts |
| 3 Grades, .......................................||8 1/11 quarts |
| 3 Natives .......................................||11 Quarts |
According to this, at Jersey cow giving about 12 2/3 quarts of milk per day, or a grade giving 16 ½ quarts, would make as much butter as a native cow giving 22 quarts per day.
Mr. Thomas Motley makes the following statement of the product of butter of the Jersey cow Flora, imported by him May 25, 1851 /then two years old). Her first calf was dropped June 18, 1851; the second, June 3, 1852; and the third, April 28, 1853. Her butter was made by itself, and carefully weighed for nearly a whole year (fifty weeks).
Mr. Motley states that this cow was not forced in any way. She had only ordinary feed, winter and summer - good feed, of course, and systematically administered, but nothing to so stimulate her secretion of cream as to impair her subsequent usefulness. Surely a breed to which such immense results are possible is worthy of our most fostering care, and we should jealously guard against sacrificing this possiblity for the sake of fancy-colour points. A herd of cows that would average five hundred pounds each of Jersey butter a year might be of all the hues of the rainbow without losing popularity.
Mr. Motley also reports the following trial with the same cow during the latter part of her previous milking: "I tried her milk, placed by itself for one week, measuring the milk and weighing the cream and butter. February 3, 1853, 40 quarts milk gave 10 quarts cream, weighing 25½ lbs., and 7 lbs butter. Febr. 9, 38½ quarts milk gave 9½ quarts cream, weighing 23 lbs., and 7½ lbs butter - 5 quarts and 1 pint of buttermilk, weighing 15 lbs. She calved on the 28th April following, two months and nineteen days after the trial.."
Mr. J. Milton Mackie writes, under date January 30, 1870: "Having lately obtained a set of glass tubes for testing the quality of milk, I have got results as follows: A two-year-old heifer (dropped April 2, 1867), which dropped her first calf June 11, 1869, showed 3½ inches of cream on a column in th e tube of 11 inches (milk and cream together). This is 31.80 percent of cream. The milk was poured from the pail as soon as drawn from the cow, not allowed to stand for a single minute. The amount of cream was ineasured in the morning, after the milk had stood in the tube between fourteen and fifteen hours. The tube stood in the milk-room at the usual temperature for setting milk in winter. The cow had been fed as usual that day, and for days before - say about two quarts of mixed bran and feed per day, on cut hay, with a little oat-straw. I may add that this heifer had been milked on the morning of the day of trial as usual. I know of noreason why this experiment is not in all respects a fair one.
The mother of this heifer was tested in the first days of November, 1866, immediately after having been purchased, and yielded 1 quart of cream from 3½ quarts of milk, fed only on grass, and short at that. The average yield of my Jerseys, tested by the tube yesterday (January 29), was 20.45 per cent of cream,a fter standing less than fifteen hours. [The heifer in question gave 3½ quarts per day at the time her milk was tested. The herd gave four quarts on an average. Of course, the proportion of cream was very large,a s the herd was drying off.]
The age at which Jersey cows should calve seems by common consent to be fixed at two years. If allowed to go much longer, they seem to lose something of their natural tendency to lactation. The precocity of the breed, however, is so great that, unless care is taken, they sometimes come in much earlier. Mr. Mackie writes, under date June 3, 1870, "My yearling Hebe 4th, out of Hebe 1st, by Cliff, dropped a calf last month, when she was only 14 months and 2 days old. She calved without trouble, behaved well in every respect; has given since about 6 quarts of milk per day She is thrifty, and I don`t think the labours and duties of maternity so early imposed upon her will injure her growth in the least. The taking the bull was accidental; but I am not sorry for the accident. The calf is of fair size, thrifty, and handsome."
It seems a valuable suggestion that heifers be made to come in with their first calves during the very flush of spring grass, when their newly used lateal organs will be stimulated to the largest possible development.
In closing this brief collocation of facts and opinions concerning the influences under which the Jersey breed of cattle has been produced and developed, and the manner in which, by adhering to, or deviating from, the conditions thus indicated, the race may be still modified or improved, it is regretted that the material was not at hand to make it more complete. Further contributions are requested for the next volume of the Register.
Scale of Points
(As adopted by the Royal Jersey Agricultural and Horticultural Society)
| Article|| ||Points |
| 1. || Head, fine and tapering || 1|
| 2. || Forehead, broad|| 1|
| 3. || Cheek, small || 1|
| 4. || Throat, clean || 1|
| 5. || Muzzle, fine and encircled by a light colour|| 1|
| 6. || Nostrils, high and open || 1|
| 7. || Horns, smooth, crumpled, not took thick at the base, and tapering, tipped with black || 1|
| 8. || Ears, small and thin || 1|
| 9. || Ears, of a deep orange colour within || 1|
| 10. || Eyes, full and lively || 1|
| 11. || Neck, arched, powerful, but not too coarse and heavy || 1|
| 12 || Chest, broad and deep || 1|
| 13. || Barrel-hooped, broad and deep || 1|
| 14. || Well-ribbed home, having but little space between the last rib and the hip || 1|
| 15. || Back, straight from the withers to the top of the hip || 1|
| 16. || Back, straight from the top of the hip to the setting-on of the tail; and the tail at right angles with the back || 1|
| 17. || Tail, fine || 1|
| 18. || Tail, hanging down to the hocks || 1|
| 19. || Hide, mellow and movable, but not too loose || 1|
| 20. || Hide, covered with fine, soft hair || 1|
| 21. || Hide, of good colour || 1|
| 22. || Fore-legs, short and straight || 1|
| 23. || Fore-arrm, large and powerful, swelling, and full above the knee, and fine below it || 1|
| 24 || Hind-Quarters, from the hock to the point of the rump, long and well filled up || 1|
| 25. || Hind-legs,s hort and straight (below the hocks), and bones rather fine || 1|
| 26. || Hind-legs, squarcely placed, and not too near together when viewed from behind|| 1|
| 27. || Hind-legs, not to cross in walking || 1|
| 28. || Hoofs, small || 1|
| 29. || Growth|| 1|
| 30. || General appearance || 1|
| 31. || Condition|| |
| || Perfection|| 31|
No prize shall be awarded to bulls having less than 25 points.
Bulls having obtained 23 points shall be allowed to be branded, but cannot take a prize.
Cows and heifers
| Article|| || Points|
| 1. ||Head, small, fine and tapering || 1|
| 2. || Cheek, small || 1|
| 3. || Throat, clean || 1|
| 4. || Muzzle, fine and encircled by a light colour || 1|
| 5. || Nostrils, high and open || 1|
| 6. || Horns, smooth, crumpled, not too thick at the base, and tapering || 1|
| 7. || Ears, small and thin || 1|
| 8. || Ears, of a deep orange colour within || 1|
| 9. || Eye, full and placid || 1|
| 10. || Neck, straight, fine and placed lightly on the shoulders|| 1|
| 11. || Chest, broad and deep || 1|
| 12. || Barrel-hooped, broad and deep || 1|
| 13. || Well-ribbed home, having but little space between the last rib and the hip || 1|
| 14. || Back, straight from the withers to the top of the hip || 1|
| 15. || Back, straight from the top of the hip to the setting-on of the tail; and the tail at right angles with the back || 1|
| 16. || Tail, fine || 1|
| 17. || Tail, hanging down too the hocks || 1|
| 18. || Hide, thin and movable, but not too loose || 1|
| 19. || Hide, covered with fine, soft hair || 1|
| 20. || Hide, of good colour || 1|
| 21. || Fore-legs, short, straight, and fine || 1|
| 22. || Fore-arm, swelling and full above the knee || 1|
| 23. || Hind-quarters, from the hock to the point of the rump, long and well filled up || 1|
| 24. || Hind-legs, short and straight (below the hocks), and bones rather fine|| 1|
| 25. || Hind-legs, squarcely placed, not too close together when viewed from behind || 1|
| 26. || Hind-legs, not too close in walking || 1|
| 27. || Hoofs, small || 1|
| 28. || Udder, full in form, i.e. well in line with the belly || 1|
| 29. || Udder, well up behind || 1|
| 30. || Teats, large and squarcely placed, behind wide apart || 1|
| 31. || Milk-veins, very prominent || 1|
| 32. || Growth|| 1|
| 33. || General appearance || 1|
| 34. || Condition || 1|
| || Perfection || 34|
No prize shall be awarded to heifers having less than 26 points.
Cows having obtained 27 points, and Heifers 24 points, shall be allowed to be branded, but cannot take a prize.
Three points, viz, Nos. 28, 29 and 31 shall be deducted from the number required for perfection in Heifers, as their udder and milk-veins cannot be fully developed; a heifer will therefore be considered perfect at 31 points.
The form of entries - Male and female animals occupy sections of the Register. Each animals`s history will be found on the line of its number and name, reaching across two pages. Each series (male and female) is numbered from one onward. Numbers in future volumes will continue the series. The names in this volume show frequent repetitions, as many of the animals had already been named when the recording of pedigrees was undertaken. Under the present rule of the Club, the duplicate use of names is prohibited. Under the head of "color and Distinguishing Marks", it is assumed, when not otherwise stated, that the animal has a black muzzle, a light fillet around the muzzle, and a white switch. The names and addresses of Breeders and Importers are given wherever it has been possible to ascertain them. The names of members of the Club are given wherever it has been possible to ascertain them. The names of members of the Club are printed in Roman type, and their addresses will be found in the list of members following the Constitution. The names of persons not members are given in Italics, and their addresses (when known) are in all cases added. In some instances, where persons have been elected to membership after they had already made entries, names stand in Italics which in later entries appear in Roman. In some cases it has been impracticable to learn the exact date of dropping and of importation. Sometimes only the year or the season could be given. In all cases where there has been good authority for precise dates, they have been recorded. The same remark applies to the record of the vessels in which, and of the places from which animals have been imported. The information when given is authentic; where it is omitted, the Committee have had satisfactory evidence of importation from Jersey. The number of the sire, in each entry, refers to the sire`s entry in the Bull list; of the dam, to the dam`s entry in the list of Cows and Heifers. Sometimes sires and dams are without the reference number - for instance, in Bull list 231, "Wellington," the dam is Imp. Victoria." The dams in which entered animals have been imported are thus left, if they have noother progeny recorded.
How Entries are Made. The Secretary will supply all applicants with printed blanks for the pedigrees of either imported or homebred animals. On each of these blanks the fullest information should be given in response to all the questions asked, save about "sire" and "dam". Here there should be only the name, and a reference by number either to an entry in the Register or to another blank, on which as full information should be given as though the sire or dam itself were the only animal in question. Every ancestor, back to importation from the Island of Jersey, must be entered in the Register, and these entries can only be made on the authority of regular blanks, duly signed by a person who is known to some member of the Executive Committee, or by a member of the Club. [If a rough draft of a pedigree is sent to the Secretary, he will make up the necessary blanks, and return them for completion; the rough draft must, however, enumerate all of the ancestors of the animal offered.
Persons offering animals for entry must bear in mind the following Rules, which have been adopted by the Club.
Adopted at Annual Meeting of Club, April 5, 1869:
"Resolved, That only such animals sall be admitted in the Herd Book as are proved to be either imported from the Island of Jersey, or descended only from such imported animals, or such as the Executive Committee shall unanimously believe to be of pure Jersey stock; and this discretion to the Committee shall be allowed only in the case of animals whose record is pure for three generations, and where there is no reason to suppose that there is any impurity previous to that."
This was modified by the Annual Meeting held at Philadelphia, April 4, 1870, by the adoption of the following Resolutions:
"That only such animals shall be admitted to the Herd Register as are proven to be either imported from the Island of Jersey, or descended only from such imported animals, or such as the Executive Committee, or two-thirds of them, shall believe, on evidence, to be of pure Jersey stock."
Adopted at Annual Meeting, April 4, 1870:
"Resolved, That hereafter the Secretary shall not be allowed to enter any animal not already named at this date under a name that has already been offered for entry or caveat; also that the affix, 1st, 2d, 3d, etc shall apply only to calves of the cow bearing the name used; not to her grandchildren, nor to any other animals."
"Pedigree" animals imported from the Island of Jersey, will, of course, be received for entry under the same names which they already have in the Herd Book of the Royal Jersey Agricultural and Horticultural Society.
Concerning animals imported and bred by the late Roswell L Colt, Paterson, New Jersey.
Mr. Colt was one of the very early breeders of Alderney cattle, and there is ample evidence that he was a careful breeder. Still,as he died in the latter part of the year 1856, and left no record of his herd, it has been impossible to obtain so full an account of the origin of animals traing to it as the strict rules laid down by the Club for the government of the Executive Committee have required in other cases. Indeed, the rules would hardly have been relaxed in this case, but for the fact that testimony received during the early stages of the work - from a member of Mr. Colt`s family - secured the admission of several animals whose blood was very widely distributed. Some of the stock in question has, since its admission, been sold and resold as "Registered", and all who have been interested in them have acted in good faith, on the supposition that they were Herd Book animals.
Further investigation has shown that the testimony at first given was erroneous, and the identification of the ancestry lacks just so much of completeness as to dis qualify it for admission under the rules; but the committee has made an exception in this case, and ordered the entries to be qualified by the present detailed statement.
Prior to September, 1855, Mr. Colt had many animals descended from the stock of the late Nicholas Biddle, of Philadelphia, and several imported by himself from Jersey. Mr.Biddle`s son, Col. Craig Biddle, says that his father`s stock was pure Guernsey.
At the Fourth National Exhibition of the United states Agricultural Society, at Philadelphia, October 1856, premiums were offered for the best "Jersey (Alderney) bull", etc Mr. Colt entered No 158, "Jersey Prince (bull), Jersey (Alderney), aged three years; No. 159, "St Clement (bull), Jersey, aged one year; No 160, "Racer (cow), Jersey, three years; No 161, "Gipsy" (cow), Jersey, three years; No 162, "Jenny" (heifer), Jersey, two years; No 163, "Snowdrop" (heifer), Jersey, two years; No. 164, "Daisy" (heifer), Jersey, one year. Premiums were awarded to "Jersey Prince" and to "St. Clement".
In letters written by Mr. Colt, he makes frequent mention of Biddle Alderneys, and on one occasion speaks of them as being superior to some prize animals he had imported from Jersey. In September, 1855, he imported at least three animals from the Island of jersey ("Gipsy", "Racer" and "Snowdrop"). Having only bulls of the Biddle stock, he rented from John Giles, of Connecticut, his recently imported bull "Prince of Jersey" (66), also called "Jersey Prince". This is the bull that took the premium in Philadelphia, where he was sold to Mr. T.P. Remington, of that city. In July, 1856, Mr. Colt imported a bull from the Island of Jersey, "St. Clement" (10). In the autumn of the same year, he imprted several Jersey cows.
James Goldie, Mr. Colt`s farmer, in a letter to the Secretary of this Club (September 24, 1870), speaking of the Biddle stock, says: "I disliked the stock so much that I got Mr. Colt to get rid of the whole of them and toget fresh importations." The last "Biddle" bull that we know Mr. Colt to have owned, he secured as a calf early in 1855. It is not known whether he bred from him.
Some of his Jerseys were still owned by the family several years after Mr. Colt`s death. It is believed, but not proven, unless Mr. Goldie`s letter is proof that they retained none of the Biddle stock. The imported cow, Jenny, exhibited at Philadelphia, is still owned at Paterson. The bull St. Clement (10) was sold by Mr. Colt`s son in the latter part of 1858. About two years after Mr. Colt`s death, Mr. Wm. Redmond (a member of this Club), bought, at the suggestion of a member of Mr. Colt`s family, a bull calf out of Jenny, from Peter Marcellus, near Paterson, to whom he had been given by the family. This bull, Uncle Peter (187) is believed to have been gotten (in 1857) by the imported bull St. Clement, then two years old. Prince of Jersey (66) had been sold, and there is no evidence that any other bull was in the possession of the family.
Mr. Redmond also purchased a claf of one of the imported Jersey cows of 1855 or 1856. She was probably gotten by Prince of Jersey.
In these cases and in some oters, in the absence of Mr. Colt`s own testimony, an assumption of pure Jersey breeding must rest on the following facts.
1. That Mr. Colt was, especially during the last two years of his life, fully impressed with the value of the Jersey breed; 2. That he imported animals from Jersey to insure purity of blood; 3. That he first hired an imported Jersey bull from John Giles, and then imported one for himself; and 4. That we have evidence that his family kept St. Clement and some of the imported cows after his death, while we have no evidence of any Biddle stock being in the herd after the spring of 1855.
The executive Committee have found it impossible to identify all of the animals offered as ancestors in the Colt pedigrees, and they submit the foregoing statment, together with the announcement that, while the evidence that these animals are of pure Jersey blood is very strong, they have not considered it sufficient to allow their admission without explanation.
All of the descendants of the animals to which this note applies are designated by an asterisk (*).