History of the Jersey Breed
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History of the Breed - Jersey -
by John Thornton.

I intend, in this paper, to give as much information respecting the Jersey breed of Cattle as I have been able to glean from the Authorities in this Country; and I shall add some facts ascertained, frem existing records and conversations with the oldest breeders, during a recent visit to the  Island. I shall endeavour to show how the trade in these animals has grown from an annual export of 400 head at the beginning of this century to a record of above 2000 in 1878. In dealing with the evidence, I shall, as occasion requires, notice what I have found published, or written, by others.
It is not proposed to go into details of the management of the animals which I have observed in this country and in Jersey; for experience shows that, since soil and climate vary so much, it is a safer practice for every owner to feel his way by trials to the method which is the best fitted to his means and situation, rather than to accept any system which may have been elsewhere adopted by others, however succussful it may have been.
At the beginning, I would wish to bear testimony to the great and good influence which has been exercised by the Royal Jersey Agricultural Society. Although its funds are, even now, too meagre to permit a paid official, yet this Association seems to have, been one chief means of improving the general character of the breed, and of developing those valuable dairy qualities in which it now stands unsurpassed. The Society has indeed so successfully encouraged stock breeding and practical farming, that the cattle on the island have doubled in value; whilst the exports of them and of potatoes conjointly (from an area under 29.000 acres) realized, in 1879, the prodigious sum of upwards of (engelske pund) 350.000. The prosperity which such successful agriculture has induced, makes itself seen in the homes of the farmers and laboures. Nothing strikes a traveller in Jersey more than the great proportion of new dwellings and farm-buildings which are visible in every parish.
As far back as l789, the States of Jersey, which still retains its ancient privilege of self-government, passed a stringent law, prohibiting the importation of cattle frem France; but there has never been, until recently, any legal restriction against the introduction of cattle frem this country of frem Guernsey and the adjacent Islands. It is by the persistence with which the Jerseymen cling to their qwn breed that its purity has been sustained. Efforts to introduce animals of other breeds from this country, have invariably been rendered futile by the inhabitants. That the breed, at a remote period, has reached som distinction i proved by the passing of the Act of 1789. The objects of this were, no doubt, at once to keep the cattle from admixture, and to sustain their reputation, by preventing French animals being sold in England, as imports freom the island. The rev. Philip Falle, so far back as 1734, wrote that "the cattle of this island are superior to the French." He goes on to attribute the excellence of beasts and men to the natural productions of Jersey; and says: - "Could men be satisfied with the common drink of nature, water I mean, no people in the world are better supplied with that than we;" and, later, "though we are no great flesheaters, as in England, our shamble on a market-day is well provided with good og wholesome meat, beef, mutton, lamb, &c., whose sweet and tender  flesh makes many prefer it to what is elsewhere both larger and fatter. This must be owing to the shortness of our grass and its not having the rankness of richer and deeper pastures. Hence also the peculiar goodness of our butter."
Regarding, however, the origin of the breed nothing definite appears to be known; nor has any thing, so far as I can ascertain, been written on the subject. Mr. P.Amy, late Herd Book Secretary, informed me that it was the impression of Col. Le Couteur (who closely studied the subject, as we shall hereafter see) that the Jersey breed took its rise on the adjacent coast. And any one may still observe the similarity that still exists between the races. Travelling recently frem St. Malo into the interior of Brittany, I was accompanied by Mr. E.J. Arnold, who is by far the largest exporter in Jersey. The small herds, which abound about Dinan, invariably contain two or three animals that resemble Jerseys; and these, Mr. Arnold assured me, would (if on the island) be readily purchased as second or third rate animals.
The system of mangement in Brittany* [*Blacks's Guide to Brittany for l873 says: -"At the fairs held at Dinan a great number of those small cows, commonly called in England Alderney cows, are sold; the price varies from £5 to £8."] seemed also somewhat similar to that practised on the Island. Yet there was wanting that excellence in the udder which is so conspicuous in the best Jersey cattle. The Brittany breed, particularly those exhibited at that magnificent show of cattle in Paris during the summer of l878, were a smaller race. They were black and white, in som respects resembling the Kerre cattle. These were all from the south coast of Brittany, where greater pains are taken to keep them pure. In the north, although many are black and white, a number are nevertheless of a fawn colour, and have yellowish black-tipped horns, with occasionally black noses and a white rim round the muzzle.

So far as I was able to ascertain, very few Jersey Cows had ever been sent to the neighbouring port of St. Malo: those that did arrive were mostly for the vicinity of Avranches and the interior of France. The larger Norman race, (or Cotentin breed, brownish red and occasionally brindled in colour, and generally with white faces) finds its way along the coast to the great Lent fair at Dinan as well to the large Thursday market there. An exceedingly fine herd of them - cows with immense wellplaced udders - is kept at the Lunatic Asylum at Dinan. The majority of steers shipped weekly to Jersey for beef from this coast are of the same race; though occasjonally smaller black and white cattle accompany them.

It is a singular fact that this small black and white breed abounds in all those places where the finest Druidical remains are found, and where the local dialects show many words of Celtic origin. There is an interesting Cromlech at Gorey on the east of the Island. In Mr. A. Durelle's herd near St. Heliers, which contains about 60 head, there were, at the close of l879, many cows quite black, that were considered good, but not rich, milkers. The best herds i Brittany are not far distant from the celebrated stones of Carnac. In Friesland, where there were anciently Druids, the cattle are black and white; and shorter legged and deeper in the body than those in the other provinces  of Holland. In Ireland (where many Druidical remains still exist) the Kerry may justly be called the national breed. Youatt, writing of Anglesey, calls it the "peculiar sent of Druidical superstition", and says, too, "the cattle are small and black".*[Mr. R.B. Smith, of Penrhyn, North Wales, writes (l880) that the oldest inhabitants consider the original Anglesey cattle were black; in travelling over the Island the colours are all black, except in a very few places, where blue grey or black and white may be found, the result of crosses, but the native population hold to their own breed unadulterated. The cows are fair milkers, and good nurses of calves. In carnarvonshire the same colour prevails, but the animals are smaller in size; even when crossed with the Hereford the white face alone marks the cross.]
In Shetland (where other remains are found) the breed of cattle is small, and, though mainly black, is occaionally black and white. In Orkney the breed again is small, "their horns short and bending towards the forehead." The Highlanders, reared for their feeding properties, have doubtless varied in type according to the purpose for which, for generations, they have been selected. The Ayrshires and Jerseys, each breed reared for the same source of profit, are not, however, so very dissimilar in size and conformation, excepting in the horns, a point particularly studied by the Jerseymen. In Ayrshire, where many old monuments still exist, the cattle, as recently as l811, were described as being almost wholly black #, [See Report of the present state of  Agriculture of Scotland, arranged under the auspices of the Highland and Agricultural Society of Edinburg, l878.] and the improvement in the breed is said to date back to 1750. Col. Fullarton, in his General View of the agriculture of Ayrshire, 1793, says, "in some parts the Galloway breed prevails, but they are generally black or brindled. In the northern parts a breed of cattle, called the Dunlop breed, has been established for a century; formerly black or brown, with white or fleshed faces and white streaks along their backs were the prevailing colours. But within these twenty years brown and white mottled cattle are generally preferred; these appear, however, to be of different origin from the former stock. Alderneys and Guernseys have also been occasionally introduced in order to give a richness and colour to the milk and butter, which they do in a degree superior to any other animal of the cow species"-
[ » Col. Le Couteur in his article on the Jersey Cow (R.A.S.E. Journal, vol, V l845), says: - "Field Marshal Conway, Governor of this sequestered isle, and Lieut. Gen. Andrew Gordon, who succeeded him nearly half a century back, both sent home of the best cattle to England and Scotland."]
Returning to the south of England; in Cornwall  a great many Druidical remains still exist. Mr. William Trethewy, of Probus, thus writes (January l880) of the county stock: - "The original Cornish cattle were small, black and white, and some brindled, but larger than the Kerries of the present day. They were hardy and good milkers. I believe they are extinct; but occasionally you see some of the colours now amongst the cattle in the west of the country." Mr. Hosken, of Hayle, also informs me that the original Cornish cattle were small, black and white, brown, and brindle, with short legs. They were good milkers and seldom weighed over 3½ to 4 ewt. of 112 lbs. *[Mr. Trethewy and Mr.  Hosken, for many years, have both given much attention to cattle, and possess two of the best herds of Shorthorns in the county of Cornwall.]

Youatt describes the cattle as "small, black, with horns rather coarse." The old blackish brown and white breed of Gloucestershire, still to be seen in Badminton Park, and the black and white accompanied the people who erected Stonehenge.As far back as l8l2 Mr. William Stevenson #[#See "General view of the Agriculture of the county of Dorset" (London, l8l2)] wrote: "There is no select breed in Dorsetshire; the dairy cows are a longhorned kind, rather short in the leg, with white backs and bellies, and darkspotted or brindled sides." In Wiltshire, Mr. Thomas Davis, of Longleat, says, in his view of the agriculture of the county (l811), that probably the old Gloucestershire breed was kept, a sort now almost extinct, or, as is now the case in Somersetshire
a mixture of all kinds; but the rage for upwards of twenty years past has been for the longhorned, or, as they are called, the North-country cows. The breeds in most of these districts, "improved away by the Shorthorn," are fast becoming things of the past; and it seems to me conclusive that as the Shorthorn, according to the late Rev. Jon Storer »[» "The Wild White Cattle of Great Britain: an account of their Origin and present State."by the late Rev. John Storer, M.A. (London, l879).] represents the improved type of the Bos Urus (the larger race of the original Wild Cattle), so the Jersey is the most improved type of the Bos Longifrons, or samller domesticated race.
No writer on Jersey has been more quoted than Thomas Quayle, who, in l812, wrote "The general view of the Agriculture and present state of the Islands on the Coast of Normandy for the consideration of the Board of Agriculture." He resided in the islands five months; and gave a very full account of the general state of property, building-land, cultivation, and rural and political economy. Of live stock, he considered the treatment of sheep and horses almost a disgrace to Jersey agriculture. "The treasure highest", said he, "in a Jersey man's estimation is his cow. She seems to be a constant object of his thoughts and attention; and that attention she certainly derserves." It is true that in summer she must "submit to be staked to the ground; but five or six times in the day her station is shifted. In winter she is warmly housed by night, and fed with the precious parsnip. When she calves, she is regaled with toast and with cider, the nectar of the island, to which powdered ginger is added." He considers the breed is "too much dispersed throughout Great Britain and too familiarly known under the appellation of Alderneys" to need description. Of its origin, he has no doubt that "the breed was derived from the contiguous continental coast, yet it is not known that in any part, the same bred is preserved in equal purity." His remarks, on the act of l789, conclude with the opinion that an imported French cow near calving might produce a bull calf and this calf escape the fate of its dam in being slaughtered; and adds, "There is, indeed, at present little danger of the occurrence of that evil which the Jerseyman so much deprecates. He will not speedily become a convert to any heretical opinions which he may happen to hear from an Englishman of the possible  superior merit over this breed, in some points of view, of a Devon or a Hereford ox, of the improved Shorthorn, or, in the quantity of milk, of a polled Suffolk cow."

The remainder of Mr. Quayle's account is, however, so interesting and, with the exception of a few passages, so generally true, even now, that it may as well be here given in full, instead of in extracts as it has generally appeared:- "It may readily be concede that the breed in these islands, in one point of view, appears to have an advantage over any other, and that is in the quantity and quality of cream produced from the consumption of a given quantity of fodder; in the article of cheese, on the other hand, they might probably be found inferior; in fact, with the exception of som cheese made of cream in a few gentlemen's houses, of excellent quality indeed, but in very small quantities, none is made in the island. The oxen are distinguished by rising to a stature and bulk much superior to the female *[*There are few, if any, bull calves now castrated, and oxen used in Jersey for working purposes; though in Guernsey they may still be seen in use (l879).]
Persons who have not seen any other than Alderney cows, would be surprised to witness the size attained by some oxen of the same breed which may be seen in the Jersey carts.
"When destined to the butcher, the animal is usually fatted in the winter by means of parsnips or potatoes, with hay, and at the conclusion, occasionally bean and oatmeal mixed, called Pe'ture. Treated in this mode, cattle of this breed are disposed to fatten quickly and to fill up well in the choice points.The ordinary weight of an ox is from 8 cwt. to 9 cwt.; som attain 11 cwt., and it is asserted that one or two individuals have reached 12 cwt.; a cow, fatted, generally weighs but from 5 cwt to 6 cwt. No complaint is made of their not fatting quickly enough when failing for the use of the dairy.
"When fatted in the summer, the animal is merely grass-fed, staked and treated as the milch cows, with the exception, possibly, of having a preference, if there be any, in the field assigned. Soiling for fatting has not hitherto been practised; but it is probable that the mode introduced of fatting by means of the second cutting of lucerne, may become usual as the culture of that valuable grass becomes more extended. Fatting by means by turnips is also not practised. The beef of a parsnipfed ox is observed to have a yellowish hue, but no peculiarity in the taste. All the beef of this breed of cattle has, perhaps, a tendency to this colour.
"The oxen are broken into labour at the age of three years, and continue at labour to that of eight or ten before they are fatted. When at work in the summer, they receive during the day cut grass or clover, at night are staked out and treated as the cows.
"The colour is here commonly red, or red and white; occasionally what is called creamcoloured, or that colour mixed with white. Sometimes they are black, and black and white; some, like the north-west Highlanders, are black, with a dingy brownred ridge on the back; and about the nostrils of the same colour. They have all a good pile, generally are thinskinned, and fatten soon; if in any point they are universally deficient, it is in being narrow in the haunch. To view a Jersey ox from behind is not placing him favourably. Bulls are  never harnessed; indeed they are seldom preserved in that state of their third year. By this erroneous practice, which is but too general in other countries, it becomes impossible to ascertain the merit of any individual, and consequently to preserve his progeny; were the treatment of horses similar, how speedily would they degene rate!
"The female propagates at an early period, generally at two years, or even younger. The month of March is preferred for cow calving. When the calf is destined for the butcher, it is also killed at a very early age: sometimes at three weeks, generally at four, and seldom is kept beyond six or seven. The greatest number of calves is usually slughtered on Easter-eve. In l8ll, 343 were killed on that day; in l8l2, 318; and in l8l3, 334. Veal fetches, at market, prices from 6d to 1s. 3d. per pound. When reared the calf is fed by hand, till able to drink alone; for about three weeks with new milk, then with skimmed, till put to grass, which is early in June.
"On milch-cows the principal attention is bestowed: in summer they are fed in the meadows, pastures , or orchards, being tethered to the ground, and shifted in succession over every part by means of a halter of the length of 12 or 14 feet attached to the head or foot, and having a swivel of two links in the middle. In apple orchards, when the fruit has attained a size, likely in swallowing to endanger the animal, the halter passing from the head by a noose round each fore foot, precludes her rasising her head to the boughs of the appletrees. When she is staked in spots, unsheltered from the sun, it is said that she is, or at least ever ought to be, removed to the homestall during the meridian heat. Though this precaution seems indespensable, with regard to an animal so impatient of heat and flies, yet instances there certainly are, and not infrequent, of its being neglected. On the sand of St. Aubins Bay, during the ebb, cows may often be seen lying on the bare sand in the hottest weather; thither the fly does not pursue them.
"It is not here admitted that a black and white cow is inferior for the dairy to a reddish or to a cream-coloured cow; indeed the opinion seems to incline the other way; the milk of a black cow is maintained by some to be the richeest: on hearing praises bestowed on particular cows, they generally, but not always, were found to have a black tinge.
"From the middle of April to the middle of July, the cow flush in milk are milked by those who most attend to dairying thrice in the day; during the remainder of the year twice; when thrice milked, it is observed that though the quantity is greater, that of the butter is not increased in proportion. The quantity of milk given, and its richness, varies essentially as in other breeds. Excluding extraordinary animals, and for a very short period of time, the greatest quantity given in 24 hours may be stated at twenty-two English quarts; the medium quantity at ten. From april to august, of the extraordinary cows above alluded to, instances are named of 14 lbs. of butter made in the week; instances of 12 lbs. are well attested. In summer nine quarts of milk (English ale measure) produce 1 lb. of butter; in the winter , when the cow i parsnip fed, seven quarts produce that quantity. This it is believed is the richest milk known. About 30 lbs. of parsnips are given in the 24 hours, with som deadow hay. The quantity of meadow hay daily  consumed by the cow has not been ascertained; but probably obout two stone.
"An accurate practical farmer, Mr. Bertram of Grouville, calculates that the money received on each cow, the calf included, amounts, communibus annis, to £30, and that the expense of her keep is about £18. He allows two verge`es*[*An English acre is equal to 2 1/4 Jersey verge`es; a verge`e consists of 40 perches, and each perch of 22 square feet; 104 lbs. Jersey are equal to 112 lbs. English avoirdupois; 110 gallons Jersey are equal to 100 gallons imperial.] and a half of pasture to each cow; but his land is of very superior quality, and his farming in every respect (turnips excepted) most judicious.
"The destination of the milk being here almost entirely to butter, its manufacture receives the principal attention, and is well understood. In the dairy, vessels of metal or of wood are never employed; the preference is given to those of coarse unglazed earthenware of Norman manufacture, round, of about 12 inches in height, 7 inches diameter at bottom, and 9 inches at the top. These "crocs", as they are termed, are at present extremely scarce, and sought by good housewives with great avidity. The Staffordshire coarse pottery, in form somewhat resembling the French  croc, being glazed, is on that account never employed. The milk stands to the height of obout 10 inches in the croc, till the cream be all risen, usually till the third day in the summer; in winter, to hasten its rising the croc is covered and placed on the hearth at bed-time.
"Skimming is consequently but once performed, and never till after the milk is coagulated. In this operation the dairymaid is careful, first detaching the cream at its edge from the vessel all round, and then raising it as much as possible together. By inclining the croc over that destined to receive the cream, sometimes nearly the whole slips off at once from the coagulated milk, the little that remains being removed by means of a scallop shell. At the bottom of the cream-croc is a small hole, stopped up by a peg, which is occasionally taken out in order to drain off the serous portion separating from the cream.
"If the cream be kept in summer five or six days before churning, the quality of the butter is affected; when the cow is fed in summer on lucerne or clover, or in winter on potatoes or turnips (though turnips for this purpose are here generally disapproved), the butter is of lighter colour, and considered of inferior quality to that produced when she is in natural pasture, or in winter when she is parsnip-fed. Jersey butter is of excellent quality; when salted and transported to warm climates it is said to remain untainted, preserving, as well as the best Irish butter, its good properties for a long period than english butter. Let it not be omitted that the Jersey butter-milk, as that of Ireland, is a grateful and refreshing draught, much preferable, whatever the reason may be, to the same liquid produced in the south-east part of England, and more in use as an article of human food. The present price of new milk is 5d. per pot of two quarts; skimmed milk 2d.; butter 1s. 4d 1s. 6d. per pound of 17 ounces and  a fraction (the weight of one penny piece) avoirdupois; in harvest (l812), 2s.
"The price of Jersey cows, considering their size and small quantity of milk, is high in the home market. A handsome two- year old heifer, may be worth about £15. A. cow of four years old £21 to £25, if of good character. It should be observed, however, that it is not the prime milkers which are generally exported. After the young cow has borne a calf or two it is sometimes significantly remarked, qu'elle est bonne pour l'Angleterre, and she goes to the cow-jobber. In selecting individuals of this breed for exportation more strict attention is paid to the beauty of the coat; to the direction of the horn, which must be in a short curve, resembling a half ring, and not divergent; to the nose being slender; and to such points of fancied beauty, which are avowed to have no reference to the judgment formed on the quality of the cow for the pail; than is paid to those which in the dairying counties are deemed to indicate excellence; these, however, the Jersey cows do in general possess, and will be found, on their diminutive scale, and as milch cows, to be in many respects well modelled. If the palm can be contested with them by any, it will be by a breed little known in the south, the Dunlop or Ayrshire cattle, a cross between the Shorthorn and the Alderney.
"So long as the Jersey cow continues to command the present high price in England, and notwithstanding her tender frame and thinnes of hair, to be in the same request for gentlemen's dairies, the islanders will continue to act wisely in cherishing their own breed, in order to supply that market, at the same time that the draft ox is found at home extremely useful. Should the market in England become glutted, in consequence of the breeds being perpetuated or improved in any home district, or by becoming less fashionable, there is a grat probability, from the exuberant fertility of the pastures in the island and its favourable climate, that the Shorthorn race of cattle, which has recently attained such high perfection in the vale of Tyne, would, if transplanted hither, be found well suited to the spot. If a first-rate cow of that breed escaped being put to death and devoured on the spot, according to law, she would, on arriving here, be gazed at as a prodigy; but to talk of the enormous bulk and weight of Mr. Carr's heifer, for instance, would in these islands at present excite the smile of incredulity.
"The general purity of the breed is guarded by the rooted opinions of the inhabitants, rather better than by the sanction of law; but hitherto no persevering, systematical experimenter, has attempted , by a careful selection of individuals, and attention to their crosses, to improve this breed. From the narrow limits of each dairy farm, ands small quantity of pasture in the occupation of any one person, it is not likely that such an attempt will speedily be made. When the cow i famed as a good milker, her male progeny is preserved; but this is for a short period, and it is not known that any other measure whatever has been persevered in, to keep up the breed at its present standard. No complaints are made that horned cattle are subject to any particular malady."

Under the patronage of the Board of Agriculture, Mr. George Garrard published a description of the different varieties of Oxen common to the British Islands, with engravings, being the accompaniment to a set of models of the improved breeds of Cattle, in which the exact proportions of every point were preserved. Upon the success of these models Mr. Garrard had the  honour to receive the congratulations and thanks of the Royal Academy. The bull illustrated is from Lord Howe's stock and the  picture bears date of publication July 29, l801; it is of a smallish animal, straight and deep, with short hind quarters and short legs. In colour it is a reddish black and white; the white running along the top of the back, over the girth, around the flanks and down the legs. The cow is drawn from one in possession of Lord Stawell, and is dated November 20, l802. It shows a long animal, lighter than the bull, and of blackish red hue, with white along  the back, belly, flanks, and legs; the horns spread upwards and outwards. The ox, dated April 1, l803, is from the Woburn Abbey stock, and was bred by Mr. Crook, Tytherton, Wilts. It is quite a different type to the bull and the cow. Regarding these animals, Mr. Garrard writes:- "Varieties of the short-horned cattle are spread over a great part of the North-west district of Europe, and have been brought into England under the various descriptions of the Holstein, Dutch, Flemish, Norman, and Alderney, the last of which is a breed of cattle imported from the islands of Guernsey and Jersey, few being obtained from the small island of Alderney from whence they derive their name. They may be considered as the high-bred cattle of the Short-horned class; being bred in a warmer climate than the rest, they have acquired a density of bone and other valuable qualities, which is exemplified in the richness of their milk, and all those properties attached to which is called highbred stock.
"In respect of size the cows seldom exceed four feet two, oxen four feet three to four feet seven. As to colour they are very distinct to all other cattle in England, and although in a general description we might say there are some red and white, and some black and white, and some in common with other cattle; yet upon nice obeservation it will be found that the colours are more brilliant and have a grater variety in examining the surface of the animal than is to be found in examining any other neat stock in Britain. We find them in all the variety of colour peculiar to the different sorts of fallow deer, and this breed of cattle also resembles the deer in the neatness and elegance of its limbs and genral form. The hide is stained nearly in the same manner as we find that of the fallow deer, but if white is anywhere discovered in an ox, it is always as the ground upon which the other colours are spread. In the deer tribe the white in spots upon a coloured ground.
"The cows exceel in the quality of their milk, of which they give from three to four gallons a day, and in one year the produce of a good cow in butter may be from 220 to 300 lbs., the pound being 2 ozs. heavier than the English *[*This is not quite corrwct, the proportion being 104 to 112 lbs. English weight.] Some cows in the seasons have given 14 lbs. a week. The calves fatten very well and the veal is execellent, best at 5 weeks old; the average weight per quarter is at one month 12 to 15 lbs.; two months 18 to 24 lbs.; three months 24 to 36 lbs. The usual weight of a heifer is 350 lbs., hide 36 lbs; of a cow 500 lbs., hide 50 lbs; and an ox 1000 lbs, hide 90 lbs.,; hides sold in 1799 at 6d. per lb.
"The cattle are healthy and subject to no particular disease, though in England they bear the strongest winter out of doors; yet from custom they are always in the islands and fed upon straw. They are easily fattened at any age, best at four or  five years old; for this purpose parsnips are generally cultivated, though with time they may equally improve on turnips, potatoes, or any of the methods usually practised, as they are not very dainty. Price in l799, a good cow and calf £15; dry cow £10; calf one year £4; good ox for yoke £18.
"The Alderney resembles in appearance much the Norman cows of the coast, but differs in quality; cows there not exceeding 8 lbs. of butter a week in the best season, nor is their butter of so fine a flavour or colour as that of Jersey and Guernsey."
Others writers in the beginning of the century have left but scanty records of the Channel Islands Cattle. Mr W.Plees, for many years a resident on the Island, wrote an account of it in l817. "The cows", he remarks," are of that breed known in England by the name of Alderney cows; the far greater number, however, if not all, are now sent from Jersey. They are smaller and more delicately formed than the English cows, and yet the oxen are sometimes very large and strongly limbed. They were, doubtless, brought originaly to Jersey from Normandy, as the same breed is common in the latter province. It is, however, probable, that the first cows imported into England from these islands were sent from Alderney, and that the name has been continued to prevent any supposed diminution in their value."
Mr. Henry D. Inglis published in l834 a work on the Channel Islands, after a two year's residence; he  quotes Quayle and adds:- "I have heard of three cows on one property yielding from 16 to 18 quarts per day during May and June, and  of 36 lbs. of butter being made  weekly from their milk. I have heard, indeed, of one cow yielding 22 quarts. The general average produce may be stated at 10 quarts of milk per day and 7 lbs. of butter per week. The price of Jersey cows has considerably fallen during the last fifteen years; a good one may now be purchased for £12; a prime milker will fetch £15, and the average may be stated from £8 to £10. Notwithstanding the attention bestowed upon the Jersey cow, and the purity of its breed, guarded as it is both by law and rooted opinion, it has nevertheless deteriorated. I was present at the inaugurational meeting of the Agricultural Society for Jersey, at which many facts illustrative of this truth were by the Secretary." Mr. Inglis considered greater attention had been bestowed on the breed of cattle in Guernsey than in Jersey, and his notions of the Alderney were disappointed. "I found it, however",said he, "everywhere admitted that there is but little distinction between the Alderney and the best specimens of the Jersey cow; the Guernsey cow, though of the same breed, is a larger animal." He had been told he would find the true Alderney black and white, but found the people of Alderney did not adopt this eriterion of purity of breed; red and white and brown and white he found equally common. The short curved horn and the prominent sparkling eye were more looked to than the color. The Govenor of Alderney showed him a cow which yielding 25 quarts of milk per day; but his inquiries did not waarant him in asserting that the cow met with in Alderney was in any way superior as a milker to the cows of Jersey and Guernsey.
That amusing chronicler Mr. J. Stead, who wrote his own epitaph "Here lie the remains of an Englishman," in a series of letters describing his voyage and travels in Jersey, l809, said, "The cows are of that choice breed known in England by the name of Normandy and Alderney cows, in such high request for the  richness and quantity of their milk. The sheep are small, but when fat of most exquisite flavour." Another (nameless) writer, in his Brief description and historical notices of Jersey, l826, remarks:- "The cows are so generally sought after, and are held in such high estimation, that they require but little to be said in therir praise; by a singular misnomer they are almost universally described in England as Alderney cows. The breed on both islands is similar."
Even Professor Low's celebrated work on Domesticated Animals, l845, gives more a history and describtion of the Island and its people, than of its Cattle; from his remarks he evidently read Quayle's work. He considers the breeds of the islands essentially the same, althoug that of Guernsey deviates from the common type and presents a greater affinity with the races of Normandy. The true Alderney, however, he concludes, has a great resemblance to certain breeds of Norway, and adds: -"The cows are imported into England in considerable numbers, and are esteemed beyond those of any other race for the richness of the milk, and the deep yellow tinge of the butter. Hence they are in demand by the more opulent classes for the domestic dairy, and regarded as a kind of appendage of the park and rural villa. They are introduced likewise into the regular butter dairies, chifly of Dorsetshire and Hampshire, and they are mingled in blood with the native races, especially the Devon and its varieties. To supply these sources of demand , the importation from the island is regular, and forms a considerable branch of their commerce.
"The catte of this race are small and ill-formed, when regarded as animals to be fattened. The cow is greatly below the male in strength and stature, in which respect she resembles the cows of the Devon and its kindred breeds. Her neck is thin, her shoulder light, and her chest narrow, and the belly large. The limbs are slender, the pelvic bones prominent; the lumbar region is deep, the croup short and drooping, and the udder large. The muzzle is narrow, the horns are short and slender, and curving inwards. The color is usually of a light red or fawn, mixed with white; but frequently individuals are black, mixed with white or dun, and sometimes cream-coloured. The skin is thin and of a rich orange-yellow, and the fat as well as the milk and butter is tinged with the same colour. The animals in size, the milk they yield is likewise small in quantity, although fully in proportion to their bulk of body; and it is viscid, and rich in cream. In their native country, the bullocks are used for labour *[*This evidently refers to Guernsey. Mr. Le Cornu informs me that bullocks would not have been found in use in Jersey, even as far back as l845.] to which they are better adapted than, from the slender form of the dam, might be inferred."
Having shown what had been published regarding the breed by those who had personally visited the Island up to l845, I purpose now to point out the means adopted by the Royal Jersey Agricultural Society for the improvement of their native breed of cattle. The origin of this Society is somewhat obscure. Few men now living remember much of its early history. Although its minute books record its early transactions somewhat imperfectly, yet, from these and the annual published reports, much may be gleaned to show the indefatigable efforts of the Committee, whose noble aims were not only to improve the native breed  of cattle, but also to encourage agriculture and ameliorate the condition of the small farmer and cottager.
The history of Mr. Michael Fowler and of his sons will be given hereafter. It may not, however, be out of place here to mention that, from his natural love of stock (being a Yorkshireman), his large and varied experience in England, and his frequent journeys to the Island, he was, indirectly, one of the means of establishing the Society. It is said that he was one of the first to draw attention to the great cattle shows held, not only in his own county, but by the Bath and West of England Society and local farmer's associations. An opinion also prevailed that the Island cattle had retrogarded during the first quarter of the century; and that, as Agriculture Societies had done much towards improving tho breed of cattle in England, something similar might be effected by establishing a Society in Jersey.
At last, on the 26th August l833, a meeting was held in St. Heliers for the purpose of taking into consideration the propriety of forming an Agricultural and Horticultural Society. The Lieut.-Govenor, Major-Gen. William Thornton, occupied the chair, and twenty-five gentlemen and farmeres were present. Three days later, rules and regulations were agreed to, among which was the offer of premiums, directed to the improvement of agriculture and breeding of cattle; no person was to complete unless a member or subscriber. On the 7th September a public meeting was held. To this Col. Le couteur acted as secretary; and the first resolution carried was to the effect that the encouragement of agricultural and horticultural improvements and improving the breed of cattle would conduce to the general welfare of the Island.
On the 5th October the Act of l826, prohibiting the importation of cattle from France was recorded on the books, "to preserve the original breed from all mixture, and to preserve a trade that had hitherto proved of so much advantage to the Island".
This seems a fitting opportunity to give further information regarding these Acts. A spirit of independence, not unmixed with a sense of jealousy towards France, seems to have actuated the mind of the Jerseyman since the days of the Conqueror.
On the 16th July, l763, at the proposition of the Deputy Attorney General, an Act was made forbidding all persons whatsoever to import from France any cattle, sheep, hogs, fowls, eggs, meat of any kind, butter, fat, under pain of confiscation of the vessel and cargo to the king* [*See an a uthentic narrative of the oppression of the Islanders of Jersey. London, l771] This Act continued in force for some years, and, on the 8th August l789, that celebrated law, the spirit of which is in force to this day, was enacted+[+I am indebted to Mr. Jon. Smith of St. Heliers, for the translation of these Acts from the French.]
 

   Act of the States of Jersey.
    August 8, l789

The fraudulent importation of Cows, Heifers, Calves and Bulls from France having become a matter most alarming to the country, in that it not only contributes to raise butcher's meat to an exorbitant price, but that it also menaces with total ruin one of the most profitable branches of the commerce of this Island with England, the states have judged it necessary to enact-

Article 1. - That whoever shall introduce into this Island, be it Cow, Heifer, Calf or Bull from France, shall be subject to a fine of two hundred pounds for each head of Cattle so introduced, besides the confiscation of the Cattle and of the Boat and its appurtenances: and every sailor employed at the time on board the said boat shall be obliged to declare this, within twenty-four hours at the latest after its arrival, to the Constable or to one of the Centeniers of the Parish where the Cattle shall have been disembarked, under a penalty of fifty pounds for each contravention: such fines and confiscation to be applied - ont third to the King, and the other two thirds to the benefit of the poor of the Parish: he (Whether Master or Sailor) who is found insolvent under these circumstances, shall be punished by imprisonment for six months.

Article 2. - That the Master of every Vessel who imports bullocks into this Island shall be found to land them in the harbour, either of St. Helier or St. Aubin, and nowhere else; and shall be obliged before landing them to give notice to the Constable, or, in his absence, to one of the Centeniers of the Parish where he is lying, under pain of confiscation of the said Cattle, Vessel and appurtenances: being forbidden to disembark them in any other part of the Island under the same penalties.

Article 3. - That the Master of every Vessel having on board, be it Cow, Heifer, Calf, or Bull from the adjacent Islands subject to His Britannic Majesty, shall be obliged, under the penalties named by the second Article, to observe the regulations established by that Article, being further bound to produce to the Constable (or in his absence to one of the Centeniers) of either of the two Parishes where disembarking is permitted, an affidavit that the said Cattle is the production and breed of the Island from which it is pretended to be brought.

Article 4. - That every Cow, Heifer, Calf, or Bull coming from France which shall be confiscated, shall be killed on the spot, and the meat shall be distributed or sold for the benefit of the poor of the Parish where it shall be seized.

Article 5. - That whenever the Master of a Ship shall have on board, be it Cow, Heifer, Calf, or Bull for exportation to England or elsewhere, he shall be liable before obtaining a passport, to give under his seal to his Excellency the Govenor a List which shall particularise the Cattle, the name and the  Parish of the vendor of the said Cattle, under a penalty upon the Master of a ship who shall be convicted of having given a false Report, or of having used any fraud respecting it, of one thousand pounds, applicable one third to the King, and the two other thirds to the General Hospital.

Article 6. - That the Master of every Vessel who shall transport, be it Cow, Heifer, Calf, or Bull out of this Island, shall be bound to produce to the Govenor a Certificate signed by the person who has sold such Cattle, specifying that such Cow, Heifer, Calf, or Bull is of his breeding, or otherwise of whom he has had them, and of what age, and if he has had them as being of the breed of this Island. Every person who shall give a false Certificate in selling or disposing of such Cattle shall be subject to a penalty of one hundred pounds, applicable in the same manner as the penalties of the 5th Article.

Article 7. - That the Master of every Vessel who shall transport, be it Cow, Heifer, Calf, or Bull out of this Island, shall be bound to enter into an obligation with the Governor, under the penalty of one hundred pounds for each head of cattle, that he will produce to the said Govenor, on his return from the same voyage a Certificate or discharge, signed by the Customs' Officer of the place where such cattle shall have disembarked written on the back of the Passport itself and nowhere else, that such a number of cattle and not more has been disembarked: in default of such Master producing the said passport with the Certificate on the back, the penalty above mentioned shall be adjudged against such Master, and shall be applied in the same way as the penalties of the 5th Article.

Article 8. - That the Master of every Vessel who shall export, be it Cow, Heifer, Calf, or Bull out of this Island by the Harbours of St. Helier or St. Aubin, shall be bound to produce to the Harbour Master immidiately before leaving the passport of the Govenor containing the list of the Cattle he is about to transport, under a penalty of One Thousand Pounds, applicable as in Article 5; and the Harbour Master shall be bound to assure himself that the same number and quality of cattle is on board as is contained in the said Passport: if he find more or less, to prevent such vessel leaving, and immidiately inform the Govenorg of it: and if such vessel leave any other part of the Island than the said Harbours of St. Helier and St. Aubin, then the Master of such vessel shall address himself to the Constable or one of the Centeniers of the Parish whence the vessel intends to sail, under the same penalty: and the Police Officer of that Parish shall fulfil in this case the duty above imposed on the Harbour Masters.
Finally, the States have ordained that the above-named Articles shall be published immidiately, as well in the ordinary place, the Market, as in each of the Parishes of this Island, to the end that no one pretend to be ignorant of the same.

The tenor of this law, some years after, was partially laid aside, for, owing to the war, meat for the increased garrison could not be obtained from England. That led to the Act of l826.

 
  Act of the States of Jersey
   March 18, l826
 
The export of Cows from this Island into England being a branch of commerce advantageous to the country, and the superiority of their quality to those of France having shown the necessity of preserving the original breed, of avoiding any foreign admixture, and of preventing, the frauds which might be practised by introducing into England French cows as being cows of this Island: The States have believed it hteir duty to that end to establish the following regulations:-

Article 1. - The importation of Cows, Heifers, and Bulls from France is prohibited. Whoever shall be convicted of having introduced any into this Island, or of having assisted or participated in it, shall be subject to a fine of one thousand pounds for each head of cattle so introduced; and such cattle shall be confiscated, as well the ship or boat which shall have imported it, will its rigging and appurtenances.

Article 2.- Whoever shall have assisted in landing such cattle so prohibited, or favoured it, or lent a hand in any manner in introducing such cattle, or brought it ashore, or hid, or received it on his premises, knowing it for cattle so prihibited, shall be considered an accomplice and subject to the same fine.

Article 3.- All cows, heifers, and bulls from France which shall be found on board a ship or boat at a distance from this Island of less than two leagues shall be confiscated, as well as the ship or boat with its rigging and appurtenances, and the Master of such ship or boat shall be subject to the fine named in the 1st Article of these Regulations; and all persons are authorised to seize such ship or boat with the said cattle and bring it to land, and shall be bound to give information of it on their arrival to the Constable, or Chief of Police, of the Parish, who will take the necessary measures to adjudge the fine and confiscation.

Article 4.- Whoever shall own or have in this possession cattle suspected of having been introduced fraudulently, shall be bound to give proof that such cattle is of the breed of this Island, or that it has been introduced from England, or from some other non-prohibited place, or that it was in this Island before the publication of the present Regulation, or that he had been in possession of it more than six months; in default of which, such cattle shall be declared to have been fraudently introduced and shall be confiscated; and the person who shall have owned it, or shall be in possession of it shall be subject to the fine named in the first Article of this Regulation.                                                                        Article 5.- The Master of every ship or boat who shall import, be it bullocks, cows, heifers, or bulls from the islands of Guernsey, Alderney , or Sark, or their dependencies, shall be bound to disembark them in the Harbours of St. Helier, St. Aubin, or Mount Orgueil, and nowhere else; and shall be obliged before landing them to give notice to the Constable or Harbour Master, and produce to him an affidavit that such cattle is  orginally from the island whence it is said to be brought, under pain of confiscation of the said ship or boat, rigging and appurtenances; it being forbidden to disembark them in any other part of the island than at the ports above named under the same penalties.

Article 6.- The Master of every ship or boat who shall introduce bullocks from France into this Island shall be bound to disembark them in the Harbours of St. Helier, St. Aubin, or Mount Orgueil, and nowhere else; and shall be obliged before landing them to give information of it to the Constable or Harbour Master, under the penalties declared in the preceding Article; it being forbidden to disembark them in any other part of the Island than the Ports above mentioned under the same penalties.

Article 7. The Master of every ship or boat who shall export, be it bullocks, cows, heifers, or bulls out of this Island, shall be bound before embarking them to produce to the Harbour Master an affadavit of the person who has sold such cattle, specifying that such bullocks, cows, heifers, or bulls are of his breeding, or otherwise of whom he has had them, and of what age, and if he has had them as being of the breed of this Island, under a penalty of one thousand pounds on the Master of such ship or boat.

Article 8. When  the Master of a ship or boat shall have on board be it bullocks, cows, heifers , or bulls for exportation to England or elsewhere, he shall be bound before obtaining a passport, to produce to his Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor a list certified by the Harbour Master, who shall specify the cattle, the name and the Parish of the vendor of the said cattle under the penalty given in Article 7 of this Regulation.

Article 9.- The Master of every ship or boat, who shall export be it bullocks, cows, heifers, or bulls out of this Island by the harbours of St. Helier, St. Aubin, or Mount Orgueil, shall be bound to produce to the Harbour Master immmediately before leaving, the passport of his Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor under a penalty of one thousand pounds; and the Harbour Master shall be bound to assure himself that the number of cattle on board such ship or boat is in conformity with the affidavits which have been put into his hand by the said Master of the ship or boat; and if he finds more or less of them to prevent such vessel from leaving, and immediately inform His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor of it. And if such ship or boat sail from any other part of the Island than the said harbours of St. Helier, St. Aubin, or Mount Orgueil, then the Master of such ship or boat shall address himself to the Constable or to one of the Centeniers of the Parish whence the ship or boat intends to sail, under the same penalty; and the Police Officer of such Parish shall in this case fulfil the duty imposed as above on the Harbour Masters.

Article 10.- The Harbour Master shall receive four pence for each head of cattle that he shall have seen and examined, which shall be paid him by the Master of the ship or boat when he shall have made the examination; and each Harbour Master shall  keep a register of the cattle so embarked, in order that the same may be produced to the Greffier as is hereafter ordered.

Article 11.- The Harbour Masters shall deliver to the Greffier every quarter, or more often if he require it, their respective Register of the cattle that they have examined and seen embark, as before said; and they will deliver to him at the same time the lists and affidavits above-mentioned, under pain of a fine of two hundred pounds for each contravention.

Article 12.- The cattle which shall be confiscated in virtue of this Regulation shall be sold before the Sheriff, who shall be bound to assure himself that the said cattle are killed immediately after the sale.

Article 13.- The fines and penalties contained in this Regulation are in lawful money (of the king) and shall be applied, as well as the amount of the confiscations, one third to the King and the two other thirds to the informer; and in the case of the insolvency of the persons upon whom the said fines or penalties shall be adjudged, they shall be imprisoned for a period not exceeding one year, and not less than six months; and the causes shall be tried before the Royal Court, whether during term or in the interim.

The general desire for free trade about 1861 between Great Britain and France  caused some people to wish for an extension of the treaty, and the States met to consider what changes should take place relative to the entry of foreign cattle. The Society drew up certain suggestions for preserving the purity of the breed, which was then valued at an annual export of £20.000 for an average of 1800 head exported; viz. no Jersey cattle to be allowed to be shipped or transhipped, except at St. Heliers; oxen to remain under the same regulations; all bull calves and heifers intended for importation or transhipment to be distinctly branded; all other cattle, save oxen, to be kept in a separate enclosure, and that none be removed or allowed to leave except for transhipment or slaughter; any calves dropped to come under this law; an officer to be appointed to enforce the law. The effect of this was the Act of 1864.

          Act of the States of Jersey.
               September 8, 1864

Considering that it is to the interest of commerce that this Island be included in the Treaties concluded and signed between the United Kongdom and France; considering that to this effect it is necessary to modify certain prohibitive regulations of the commercial legislation of the Island, in order to put this legislation in harmony with the fundamental principle of those Treaties; considering always that it is to be the interest of agriculture to maintain the purity of the bovine race, and consequently necessary to establish a regulation to that effect, - the States have decided, subject to the sanction of Her Most Excellent Majesty in Counsil, to adopt the following Law, to have force of law as long as this Island shall participate in the advantages of the Treaty of Commerce:-
 
Article 1.- Provides that French wines and spirits shall pay no more duty than those of the most favoured country.

Article 2.- Permits the importation of French and other apples, pears, and cider, which were before prohibited.

Article 3.- The Law of the 18th March, 1826, confirmed the 14th March 1827, so far as concerns its dispositions prohibiting the introduction of cows, heifers, calves, and bulls from France is also abrogated. For the future foreign cattle may be introduced into the Island, be it for consumption, be it in transit for re-exportation.

Article 4.- Foreign cows, heifers, calves, and bulls cannot be employed for reproduction in this Island. To ensure the execution of this regulation, the introduction of these animals, whether for consumption or re-exportation, shall be subject to the following conditions.

Article 5.- The cattle indicated in Articles 3 and 4 can only be landed in the Port of St. Helier under pain of the fine named i Article 10.

Article 6.- The Master of every vessel importing cattle mentioned in Articles 3 and 4 shall be bound, before landing the same, to give written notice of it to the Agent to be named. The consignee of the cattle shall equally be bound within 24 hours of the disembarkation to remit to the said Agent a declaration containing the number and kind of cattle so introduced, and the name of the vessel which has brought them.

Article 7.- The Harbours Committee shall provide a place where the cattle indicated in Articles 3 and 4 shall be taken directly from the place of landing.

Article 8.- The cows, heifers, bulls, and calves imported shall be branded on their arrival at the above place on the right quarter or on the forehead, at the choice of the importer, with the letter F three inches square, the said letter to be stamped with a red-hot iron. The said animals must remain in the above place in the keeping of the Agent provided for that purpose; and can only be withdrawn from it for slaughter in the Public Slaughter-house, or for re-embarkment if they are consigned for re-exportation, and this under the surveillance of the said Agent.

Article 9.- The owner of the cattle brought here in transit must obtain from the Agent a permit to ship them, such permit specifying the number and kind of animals that he proposes to export. He must obtain from the Master of the vessel a receipt containing the same particulars, which he shall be bound to remit to the Agent. The Master of every vessel is forbidden to receive foreign cattle on board his vessel without the production of the above-named permit.

Article 10.-Every person convicted of having infringed, or of having aided or assisted in infringing any of the dispositions of this Law, shall be condemned to pay a fine to Her Majesty of  ten ponds sterling for each head of cattle. Where there is an informer, he shall receive one third of the said fine. If unable to pay, the delinquent shall be punished by imprisonment for six months. All foreing cattle found, in contravention of this Law, in the possession of any person shall be sequestrated by the Constable or by one of the Centeniers fo the Parish where such cattle shall have been found, and shall be immediately slaughtered for the use of the General Hospital without prejudice to the fine incurred.

Article 11.- The States will name an Agent who shall have the surveillance of the place mentioned above and the care of the cattle which shall be taken there, and shall be charged to watch over the execution of the other dispositions of the law as above mentioned. The Harbours`Committee shall establish such a tariff as shall seem just to levy to defray the expenses necessitated by the present Law.

Article 12.- The present Law rescinds none of the dispositions of the Law of 18th March 1826, relative to the importation of foreign bullocks; and the bullocks, cows, heifers, calves and bulls from the Islands of Guernsey, ALderney, Sark, and their dependencies; and the duties of the Harbour Masters. The tax of sixpence per head hitherto levied on cattle exported from this Island is abolished.

A further Act was passed on the 19th September, 1878, for sanitary purposes only, the preamble of which runs "Considering that it would be advantageous, while taking precautions to preserve the bovine race of this Island against all danger of contagious malady, to be able to import cattle for provisioning the island from the ports of Normandy and Brittany and other countries not included amongst prohibited places."
This arose on account of the restrictions enforced for the suppression of the rinderpest or cattle plague; and in October a clause was added, giving power to the veterinary inspector to slaughter any animal from any port whatsoever. Two attempts were made to land some Shorthorn cows frm Weymouth; but they were promptly arrested by Mr. Henry E. Poole, the Government veterinary, and were at once slaughtered. This act was sanctioned and approved by the Harbours` Committee; and Mr. Poole was requested to follow the same course in any future attempt to land bulls or cows on the Island. This is not the first time Shorthorn cattle have been brought to Jersey. Mr. Revans, about 1845, introduced some "Durhams", as they were then termed; but Mr. Falla informed me they were not succesful; and, on being sold by auction some time afterwards, were bought by butchers to be killed. Some Ayrshires were also introduced into St. Martins`s parish by Col. Godfray; but these, after a time, shared the same fate as the Shorthorns.*
[* Mr. C.P. Le Cornu writes on this subject as follows:- "It appears that many years ago, when Col. James Godfray farmed his estate at St. Martins, he introduced a few Shorthorns for the purpose of trying crosses with his own Jersey stock. This he tried, and becoming very soon tired of the results gave up the idea, and got rid of his animals by selling them to the butcher. He next tried Ayrshires, but not being satisfied and seeing no improvement in his stock, he ultimately got rid of  the whole in the same way. As regards the effect produced on the quality of the milk, Col. Godfray says it got of such thin substance that his foreman would not think of continuing. In this respect the Ayrshires gave more satisfaction than the Shorthorns, but he gladly returned to his original stock."]

Guernsey cattle are not prohibited and a few, very few, may still be found on the Island. Intermarriages have occasionally taken place between the inhabitants, and it is said a Guernsey bride sometimes receives a cow as dowry. This animal is naturally cherished; its butter is deeper in colour than the Jersey, but very rarely of greater quantity. Crosses between the breeds are neither successful nor advantageous; the yellow colour, and the pink nose and eyes of the Guernsey crop up in the offspring, which retains a coarseness, at once detected and rejected by the judges. Indeed the natural pride that every Jerseyman has in his cow, and his desire to mate her to a prize or decorated bull, of itself, sufficient to keep the breed pure.
The French cattle for beef arrive generally on Thursday mornings and come mostly from the Brittany coast. They are landed at a different quay in St. Heliers to that from which cattle are shipped from the Island, and driven at once to a large yard and slaughter-house at the head of the harbour. About one hundred and upwards arrive weekly, according to the trade, and are of a most varied description, of all sizes and colours - reddish browns, brindles, red and white, and black and white, many of them showing unmistakable signs of a Shorthorn cross. They are all examined by the veterinary inspector and marked; the steers are bought by butchers and driven away to be slaughtered as required. The bulls, cows, and acalves are not permitted to leave the yard, but are there killed, and the carcases taken away by the various purchasers to the market or their own shops. Every precaution is thus taken to keep the Island breed both pure and healthy, and though the beef supply is abundant, it is not of the finest quality.
On the 18th of January, 1834, the Society drew up their first scale of points. Two of the best cows on the Island were selected as models; one was allowed to be perfect in her forequarters and barrel, the other in her hind-quarters. With the help of the best breeders and dealers a scale for governing the judges at the cattle shows, was drawn up as follows:

Scale of Points for Bulls.

Article                                                 Points
1.Purity of breed on male and female sides, reputed for having produced rich and yellow butter.............................4
2. Head fine and tapering; check small; muzzle fine, and encircled with white; nostrils high and open; horns polished, crumpled, not too thick at the base and tapering, and tipped with black; ears small, of an orange colour within; eye full and lively.................................................. 8
3. Neck fine and highly placed on the shoulders; chest broad, barrel hooped and deep, well ribbed home to the hips........ 3.
4. Back straight from the withers to the setting on the tail, at right angles to the tail; tail fine, hanging two inches below the hock.............................................. 3.
 5. Hide thin and movable, mellow, well covered with soft and fine hair of a good colour.................................. 3.
6. Forearm large and powerful; legs short and straight, swelling and full above the knee, and fine below it............  2.
7. Hind quarters, from the huckle to the point of the rump, long and well filled up; the legs not to cross behind in walking .................................................... 2
                                        Perfection......... 25

No prize shall be awarded to a bull having less than 20 points
.
Scale of Points for Cows and Heifers.

1. Breed on male and female sides reputed for producing rich and yellow butter........................................... 4
2. Head small, fine, and tapering; eye full and lively; muzzle fine and encircled with white; horns polished and a little crumpled, tipped with black; ears small, of an orange colour within......................................................  8
3. Back straight from the withers to the setting-on of the tail; chest deep, and nearly of a line with the belly.......  4
4. Hide thin, movable, but not too loose, well covered with fine and soft hair of good colour...........................  2
5. Barrel hooped, and deep, well ribbed home, having but little space between the ribs and hips; tail fine, hanging two inches below the hock..............................................  3
6. Fore legs straight and fine; thighs full and long, close together when viewed from behind; hind legs short, and bones rather fine; hoofs small; hind legs not to cross in walking.. 2
7. Udder full, well up behind; teats large and squarely placed, being wide apart; milk-veins large and swelling.............  4
                                         Perfection for Cows 27

Two points shall be deducted from the number required for perfection in Heifers, as their udder and milk-veins cannot be fully developed. A Heifer will therefore be considered perfect at 25 points.

No prizes shall be awarded to Cows or Heifers having less than 24 points.

The above points were approved of and decided on by Messrs. Brehaut, Bevens, Le Gresley, Simon, and Le Bas, Cattle dealers, in the presence of His Excellency the President and Committee for 1834.

Form of Judge`s Declaration
 

I,A.B., do declare upon my honour, that I will well and truly judge, according to the best of my skill and knowledge, which is the best animal in each class without favour or partiality.

Each prize bull shall receive a premium from the Society of three pence, beyond the customary charge paid for every cow belonging to a subscriber that shall be in calf by such bull.

No person shall receive a prize for a bull, stallion, or boar  until they shall have remained in the Island at least one whole season after the prizes were awarded, and which must be duly certified to the satisfaction of the Agricultural Committee.

Cattle or swine having been reared on the Island by a subscriber, or the bonâ fide property of the exhibitor for six months before the exhibition, shall be considered his own rearing.

In course of time and experience this scale of points received sundry additions and modifications, as will be shown hereafter. Meantime the little society began to flourish. King William IV was graciously pleased to become Patron, and Her Majesty has continued this Patronage. The States grant of £100 was continued and paid a second year.

The first show was held March 31, 1834. The prizes amounted to £24. There were seven Parochial prizes of £1 each, and a general prize of £3, which Col. Le Couteur won with a red and white yearling bull. The Report for the year very modestly stated, that it was not within its limits to point out all the improvements that might be adopted; but the fatting of cattle having been recently introduced with success by an intelligent farmer, it may be desirable to offer a premium for the finest ox - this branch of agriculture having hitherto been entirely overlooked by the Jersey farmer, the beef of the island being confessedly much inferior to that of Guernsey. The cultivation of chicory, Trifolium incarnatum, and parsnips was advocated. It was resolved to encourage fine bulls, with points up to perfection by giving a premium of £10 for perfect bulls, and allowing the owner 2s. a head for each cow that shall have been with calf by such bulls.
In 1835 the show furnished not only a larger supply, but the animals were of a much finer order as to breed and condition. The Society was congratulated on the happy results of its influence in producing a spirit of emulation, that the race of Jersey cows may become still more valuable and perfect.
Her Majesty became Patroness in 1837. £55 was awarded in prizes; £1 each for the best yearling bull and yearling heifer in each parish; £2 each for the best bull and best heifer among these; £10 for a bull with 25 points, the service fee to be 1s 6d.; and £4 for a cow with 27 points. Two shows were held; one in March for bulls, and the other in May for cows and heifers. This division of the shows has continued up to the present day.
The year 1836 saw an increased number of animals exhibited; and it was remarked that they were cleaner and in better condition than formerly. The 71 entries increased to 153 the next year; and it was suggested that arrangements be made, to keep one superior bull in each parish *.
[* The island of Jersey is divided into twelve  parishes, viz. St. Brelade, St. Clement, St. Helier, St. John, St. Lawrence, St. Martin, St. Mary, St. Owen, St. Peter, St. Saviour, Grouville, and Trinity. Each parish has a church, and its own administration. These parishes are subdivided into vingtaines, or double tithings]
and encouragemnt be given to keep first rate heifers in the Island, as the high prices offered were a strong temptation to export them. The States grant was given in separate prizes, and  the Society`s balance in hand amounted to £52 16s. 5½d.
The system of giving points for pedigree (which, in the Island interpretation, means "the offspring of a prize or decorated male or female stock"), from which eventually dawned the Herd Book, commenced in 1838. "The period having arrived when the pedigree of cattle is to be recorded, two points being allowed for breed on the male side, two on the female, and four when the stock is derived.from prize cattle on both sides, competitors will now be required to state the pedigree of their cattle in sending in their list, as the Committee will be charged to add the points for breed from the record book, to those awarded by the Judges." Sweepstakes, as in the English, Irish, and Scotch societies, were also recommended, and afterwards occassionally adopted. Three more points were added to the scale, viz. one for growth and two for general  appearance, making a total of 28 for bulls, 30 for cows, and 28 for heifers. Two new rules were also enacted; one to the effect, that any person withholding the service of a prize bull from the public shall forfeit the premium, and the other, that all heifers having had premium adjudged to them shall be kept on the Island until they shall have dropped their first calf. If previously sold for exportation they shall forfeit te premium. The report for the year concludes:- "This Society set out with the desire of creating a spirit of industry and emulation. It has fulfilled its object. It has improved, greatly improved, the breed of cattle.At the last show 166 head of very fine cattle, in a most superior condition as compared with former exhibitions, were declared by the judges to evince in the most satisfactory and conclusive manner, the undeniable improvement that is manifested in form and condition. Their value has also increased, £30 having been refused for a prize cow and her prize yearling heifer, and £20 have been realized for another prize heifer."

The report for 1839 again pointed out that the attention of the Board of Management was closely directed to the improvement of the breed of Island cattle. It adds:- "The cows indigenous to our soil had long been exported from the Island generally in such poor and wretched condition, that they were bought by the English farmers from their cheapness and utility as regarded the dairy only. Until recent years, so little was the breed of this island distinguished, that the cows imported into England were sold as the product of ALderney, although that little speck in the Channel could not have supplied one hundredth part of the exportation from the Channel Islands. The Board has now to congratulate the Jersey farmer, that while the celebrity of the Jersey cow has advanced so high in esteem in the mother country, her value has increased in the same proportion. In our last report instances were referred to, of cows exhibited at our Cattle shows, fetching the high prices of £25 and £30 each; and it is highly encouraging to add that this amelioration in so important a branch of the farm is far from being stationary. The exhibits in March and May of the present year were not only more crowded than on any preceding occasion, but the bulls, cows, heifers, and yearlings, brought for competition, when arranged for adjudication, showed a display of cattle as to condition and breed, never before equalled. There has arisen that honourable emulation among the Jersey farmers, which has  called forth an attention to the breed and condition of their cattle, that makes the traffic in the sale of cows, an important item of our island exports, and of course a very essential one in the profit of the farm."
The following year nineteen bulls were decorated. Several were rejected that formerly would have been considered deserving a prize. Twenty-six heifers and twelve cows received premiums or decorations, and the Judges, on this occasion stated to the Secretary the defects which they observed, and deducted from the number of points required in the perfect animal. By this regulation, on referring to the note book in which the defects were recorded, a farmer could, by a judicious system of crossing, command the improvement of form required. Earl Spencer`s treatise on breeding was quoted at some length; and the report concluded with the hope that by adhering to the rules recommended by the best authority, the genral form of the "CrumpledHorned Cattle" may be brought into a repute as certain as that of the Durham or Shorthorn breed; that by the excellent food, warmth and shelter insisted on for calves of the first year, Earl Spencer`s pure Jersey yearlings were nearly as large as most of the two-year old heifers seen on the Island.
Considering the good work the Society was effecting with he small funds at its command, some little pique was felt that the States gave so little assistance. The £100 granted to pay the prizes awarded was gratefully acknowledged; but some surprise was expressed  that £60.000 [*] was voted for commerce, and only £100 to stimulate
[* Probably a State vote for harbour docks.]
husbandry in a soil and climate highly favoured by Providence, and which only required the light of science and spur of competition, to bring the whole surface of the Island into the highest state of culture. Seven years` attention to breeding had almost caused the ancient characteristic defect, the drooping hind quarter, of the Jersey Cattle to disappear, besides several minor defects, and it only remained to give squareness to the hind quarter, and roundness to the barrel, to render it a most beatiful animal. "The fact that neither the 30 points to cows nor the 28 to bulls have ever yet been awarded, sufficiently evinces the jealous care and attention with which the Judges have discharged their oftentimes difficult duty." At the annual dinner this year, Col. Le Couteur, in proposing the Society, made the following speech, which was quoted in the English newspaper:- "He would tell those who are lukewarm to this Society to look back ten years. The land foul with weeds, crops inferior, liquid manure wasted, the market ill supplied. What had been effected? In cattle, beauty of form and flesh had been added to milking and creaming qualities.More cattle had been decorated this year than on any previous occasion; and the breed had so greatly improved, that many of the animals rejected for having less than nineteen points, would have been prize cattle when the Society was formed, so well were their merits now understood. The price of cattle had fully doubled. This led him to call the attention to one important change; The Board of Management had found it difficult at times to get cattle dealers to act as judges; besides, it was a question whether there might not be an interest in keeping back the points. Seven years being a full apprenticeship in any business, it was conceived that many of our farmers having now  given constant attention to the points of their cattle, there were numbers who could act as judges for horned cattle quite as well as other judges for horses; and the event has verified the expectation."
The States grant of £100 was withdrawn in 1842, yet the funds of the Society were sufficient to continue its good work. Inferior cattle had fallen in value, but those decorated by point still fetched high prices. The Board of Management had, however, a new spur to arouse the skill and energy of "our breeders of cattle". French and other foreign cattle having the appearance of the Island breed, had been introduced into England and sold as inferior Alderneys, though they were singularly dissimilar from them in their most valuable property, the milk or rich creaming qualities. With a view of checking this deception, it was proposed to brand all the prize and decorated cattle. Sixty-four head of cattle had gained premiums; and it was noted as worthy of remark that Mr. Fowler (known as an extensive cattle dealer) purchased a young Jersey bull for £9; he afterwards sold it in England, and the purchaser, within a short period, resold the same bull for £84.
The Meeting of the Royal Agricultural Society of England at Southampton in 1844 caused some little stir. The Board gratefully acknowledged the liberal grant of premiums given by the English Society for "Channel Islands or crumpled-horned cattle," and allowed half the sum granted as additional premiums to the owner of the prize animals in each class, calling at the same time specialattention to Rule 57, which permitted no person to receive a prize for a bull, stallion, or boar until the animal had remained in the Island at least one whole season after the prizes were awarded. At the Show "it was observable that a marked difference existed between the Guernsey and Jersey breeds, the latter being altogether of a more delicate and slight form." Capt. Douglas`s first prize cow was sold by Mr. Fowler for £30. Col. Le Couteur obtained £28 for his Jersey prize cow, and Mr. Robin refused £29 for his cow, and Mr- Hume £20 for his heifer. On the same day four ordinary good yearling heifers were sold for £50. It was remarked "by that eminent breeder Mr. Bates of Kirklevington, that the handling, as it is termed by English breeders, was noticed by him to be good in some of our cattle. This quality should be endeavoured to be obtained by careful crossing, as it gives a tendency to fattening and milking qualities." The visit to the Southampton Show not only resulted in good value for cattle, and good opion from that most critical of judges, Mr. Bates, but showed the Jerseymen how their breed was used in England, for the report added:-" It seems pretty well established throughout most dairy farms in England, that one Jersey cow to two or three another breed greatly tends to improve the colour and richness of the butter. Hence it behoves the Jersey farmer to be watchful in improving the colouring and rich properties of their breed."
Attention was called this year to a communication from the bailiff of Guernsey conveying an ordinance of the Court of Guernsey allowing the importation of foreign cattle under certain regulations into that Island. "Such a measure is regarded with extreme jealousy by the farmers here (Jersey), and will require great vigilance on the part of the Guernsey farmers in order to preserve the native race pure." It noticed  the Guernsey Cattle Club for the insurance of Cattle, wherby 8995 Cattle, valued at £72.934 were insured from 1822-1842, as "being an excellent principle so advantageous to the small farmer generally, as to be worthy of adoption." The number of bulls exhibited now began to fall off, which was attributed to the small premium offered, and the "cost of keeping these expensive animals." Cows and heifers continued very numerous. Ninety received premiums or decorations, but the "hind quarter defect is still the principal one to be removed."

Again, in 1845, the entry of bulls at the Show fell off, and it was proposed to suppress some prizes and increase those for bulls. The season, too, had been unfavourable. Potato disease abounded, and some of the animals were so far out of condition that the judges refused to examine them. Indeed, the Committee reported that some were sent in such a "disgracefully dirty state as to be discreditable to their owners and the Show." The failure of crops doubtless had something to do with this; and I was informed by one high authority that he remembered some of the cattle in the country being so thin that it was necessary to help them to rise.

The Scale of Points received some revision about this period, and again in 1849, 1851, and 1858. Each part of the animal was given in detail, and received one point, instead of being put into sections with a number of points, as in the first arrangement. Experience showed, too, the necessity of adding some others, so that in 1858 the number for bulls stood at 33, and cows at 36. A bull having 23 points might be branded, but required 25 to gain a prize; cows required 29 points for at prize, branded with 27; and heifers 26 for a prize, and 24 to be branded. Subsequently, in order to give the judges an opportuni- ty of detailing the merit of these points, the number was increased to 100, as will be shown further on.

The excellence of the animals at the Southampton Show doubtless led the Royal Agricultural Society of England to give more consideration to the breed; and in the "Journal" for 1845 appeared that excellent paper "On the Jersey, misnamed Alderney, Cow." by Col. Le Couteur, who was by birth and family a Jerseyman. He spent his early years in the army; then settled in his native place, where he continued to lead an active life, filling various posts. He seems to have served the Agricultural SOciety in every way, always warmly supporting its interests. He was the author of a work on "The varieties, Properties, and Classification of Wheat," published in 1836 and re-edited in 1872. His opinion on the subject of the Jersey Cow is even better set forth in the Annual Report for 1846 than in the Essay.For he was still then acting as secretary to the Society, which had so prospered under his generous efforts, that in the following year he was unanimously elected President, a position which he afterwards filled in 1853 and again in 1868 and 1869, and he received the honour of knighthood a few years prior to his death. He reviewed the action and effects of the Society in the improvement of cattle in the report for 1846 as follows:- "It can be safely asserted that previous to 1833 no one had thought of improving the breed of cattle by any system or fixed rule. The Jersey cow was excellent, as she has ever been, which  has been attributed to the circumstance of a few farmers having constantly attended to raising stock from cows of the best milking qualities; which attention, prosecuted for a long number of years in a small country like ours, where such superior qualities would soon be known, led to the excellence of milking and butter yielding properties in the race at large. This never could have been attained so generally in Normandy, from whence our breed probably originated, or in any other extended country. Hence in a great measure may be traced the cause why half a century back it is recorded of a Jersey cow that she produced fourteen pounds of butter in a week. This great quantity is not likely to be exceeded; but it has frequently been, and is constantly equalled.

"The animal which then produced that quantity might have been the ugliest that can be described: with a long head, bad horns, ewe necked, hollow backed, cat hammed, walking ill; yet her points of value, the characteristic features of the Jersey breed, were present and redeeming - a lively eye, orange ears, round barrel, depth of chest, short fine deerlike limbs, a capital udder, largely developed milk veins, and a fine tail. No one would have purchased this animal for ornament; her usefulness might have commanded a high price, but the ordinary value of good cows was from £8 to £12. Heifers were sold at £4 or £5. The export at that period was from 700 to 800 yearly." In order to be convinced that the picture is not overdrawn the following report is produced, drawn up by the judges, who were the principal cattle dealers, at the cattle show of the 9th of April, 1834: "the secretary requested the judges to state their opinion in writing as to the general defects observable in the cattle exhibited, in order to direct the attention of the Society to the most faulty points; and they reported their opinion as follows:-
1. That the cattle were very much out of condition.
2. Too slightly formed behind, and cat hammed.
3. Gait unsightly
4. The udder ill formed.
5. The tail coarse and thick.
6. The hoofs large.
7. The head coarse and ill shaped.
8. Many were without that golden or yellow tinge within the ears which denotes a property to produce yellow and rich butter.
9. Some cows and heifers had short bull necks.
10. Some had too much flesh or dewlap under the throat.
11. Some were too heavy in the shoulders.

"And from these principal defects, so clearly and frankly pointed out by the experienced judges, and the information gained from the list of points required for perfection in cattle, your committee may be warranted in expressing an opinion, that by judicious crossing a material and speedy improvement in the race of Jersey cows may be expected; and it should be specially urged on the notice of the Society, that the improvement is not only attainable, and the correction or removal of the faults pointed out to be accomplished; but that by crossing the breed, perfection is most likely to be attained, if proper pains be taken in the selection.
 "The fixing of points and pedigree to cattle have established the fact that a cow may be equally good as beautiful; and on many farms, including that of the writer, two cows may be found with prize points, each producing fourteen pounds of rich butter in May and June. Such cows are now of a value of between £20 and £30, while their heifers will fetch from £12 to £15. From £20 to £24 have been paid for many. Jersey bulls have also risen in value from £10 to £20; in one case £84 was given for one in England. A fact worthy of notice, not generally known, is that the Jersey cow when old and becoming of little value as a milker, will. when fed up, fatten rapidly and produce a greater quantity of butcher`s meat than is supposed; this has been verified in several instances by members of your board. By a reference to the pedigree of the cattle it will be found that the essential character of form is to be traced to the male, the imprinting of certain characteristic features having been observed for three and four generations. There is now a bull at La Moie with the peculiar white ring round the muzzle which belonged to a progenitor six or seven years back; and in another parish may be seen a bull with the peculiar spot on the nose which defaced his forefathers. So will the valuable qualities for milk, or a tendency to fatten, be readily kept up and traced back throughout several generations.

(Signed) "J.Le Couteur."

The report finally concludes:-" The Committee learnt with great regret that some cattle dealers, taking advantage of the late alteration of duties in England, have introduced French cattle into England mixed with those of Jersey, passing off animals almost of the same external appearance for our native breed; while their qualities for milk and butter are astonishingly inferior; so much so as for the fact to be almost incredible. It was proposed to submit a petition to the Legislative Assembly to protect by means of certificates, delivered to the purchasers of each head of cattle on exportation, or any other means to prevent this fraud, which they have every reason to believe is carried on to a considerable extent."
That these French cattle were shipped as Jerseys to England is well known by many still living; it is said they were bought in France for about £5 and sold in England for £15, one man making alone by the trade upwards of £1800.Nearly twenty years later much anxiety was caused by this nefarious system being revived. Even at the present day (1879-80) it is possible to buy animals along the northern coast of Brittany in every way resembling Jerseys, except in the inferiority of their udders, at from £8 to £10; but the fourteen days` quarantine at Southampton required for French cattle, is sufficient precaution against this trade now being carried on. Small black and white Brittany cattle a few years ago were brought over in large numbers by Messrs. Robertson & Co., who have carried on an extensive business in them [*]
[* Messrs Robertson & Co., of Woking, Surrey, write, 1880:-"We have imported some hundred since the year 1864, principally from the department of Morbihan. They have been mostly sent into the Southern Counties from Kent to Devon; several have gone to South Wales, a few to North Wales and the Midland Counties; also to York and Newcastle, indeed as far north as  Perth, as well as to Cork and Limerick in Ireland. The orders of the Privy Council since the unfortunate Franco-Prussian war have, however, greatly retarded our business.]

In 1847 ,"a year of unprecedented distress." correspondence took place with the Royal Agricultural Society of England, soliciting that Society to render every assistance in preventing the imposition of introducing French cattle into England and selling them there as Jersey stock; to such an extent was this trade carried on that the export of cows from the Island in 1846 fell from 1687 to 1214 head the following year. Indeed so frequent became the intercourse between this country and Jersey, and such good feeling prevailed, that the Board presented a yearling bull and heifer,  given by Col. Le Couteur, and a two-year-old heifer of Mr. Thos. Filleul`s, to Her Majesty, " who was graciously pleased to express herself highly gratified with the attention of the Society."
Col. Le Couteur`s paper in the Journal of the Royal Agricultural SOciety of England having attracted considerable attention, the President of the Royal Jersey Society, Mr. Hume, published at letter to the Board of Management, in which he set forth that, in order to prove the excellence of the Jersey cow it was necessary that some individual should put her virtues as a dairy cow to the test. He did so, with the following results of his experience for one year.:-

"On the 1st of July, 1845, three cows were put into the dairy; they were selected with great care; but were cows upon their first calves, and two-years olds, which of course, you all must know, is not the most favourable period for an experiment such as I now mean to lay before you. Due care was, however, taken that they should be fed in what I considered the best manner for produce, and a regular account of that produce was kept, and which is as follows:-
                                             £    s    d
580½ lbs. butter at 1s. per lb is...........29    0    0
Cream and milk for supplyof house at 1s per
day.........................................18    5    0
Three calves reared, at £5 each............ 15    0    0
Manuare for six month, at 5s per month each
cow.......................................   4   10    0
                                          £ 66   15    6
Deduct the expense of keep at £7 each cow   21    0    0
             Total........................  45   15    6
Which gives to each cow, annually, a profit
of........................................£ 15    5    2

"My object in thus bringing before you this result is in the hope that it may induce some of you to try a similar experiment. My own impression is that the cows of this Island are the best at present known for dairy purposes; but to the feeder, I think, they cannot yield a profit, for this simple reason -that were they ever so well inclined to fatten (which they are not), their frames are too small to carry a sufficient quantity of beef to recompense the feeder; their province is the dairy, into which the cow is brought at the age of twenty months; and if care is taken of her, she will continue there, breeding annually, until she attains the age of sixteen or  seventeen years. In may opinion, it is a matter of little consequence what becomes of her after that time, as she cannot owe anything to her master, whatever he may be indebted to her. I am not quite satisfied with this trial, and shall therefore continue the experiment for another year with the same cows." The result of the trial the following year with the same cows was an additional profit of about 33 per cent.
Few events of interest took place during the next three years. Farmers were urged to avoid the diseased sorts of potatoes, and prices of cattle declined fully twenty per cent in 1849. But the Great Exhibition year of 1851 showed an increase of funds and a larger number of animals exported. The R.A.S.E. was congratulated on the success of its show at Windsor; the Jersey men on the remunerative and highly satisfactory prices obtained for their stock; and the Board was entirely convinced that the encouragement the Society may give to the breeding and rearing of this very valuable breed of Cattle must be a vast source of wealth and prosperity to the agriculturists of the Island. The funds, however, were still falling off, and the Board hoped the States would see the necessity of voting a small sum of money to increase principally the prizes for bulls.
In 1853 American wealth and influence were felt on the Island equally as the English stock sales[*]
[* At the sale of Earl Ducie`s herd of Shorthorn Cattle at Tortworth Court, Aug. 24, 1853, the Americans bought four cows and two bulls for £3255; for one three-year-old cow, Duchess 66th, they paid 700 guineas.]
The report remarks that several animals had been sent to the United States, "where a great and intelligent people are offering every encouragement to all branches of agriculture." The scale of points figured in the tenth volume of the Transactions of the New York Agricultural Society, and the experiment made in America to ascertain the relative merits of the Jersey and Ayrshire cow, resulting in favour of the Jersey, was reported in full Bu direction of the Board, "The Artist who paints the prize cattle in the Herd Book and for the Smithfield Club "drew a picture of a Jersey cow, and "declared it to be the most beautiful form of a cow that he could conceive;" the report significantly adds, "this is to be believed." At the show 26 bulls and 79 cows and heifers were entitled to give their progeny pedigree. The Society was urged to offer the original prize of £10 extra to any breeder who might produce perfection in either male or female animal; and adds:-"Pedigree has led, through a more careful attention in breeding and crossing, to a more certain success, and to the practice of scienfic knowledge."
The exportation to America continued in 1854 and 1855 with undiminished activity; and the Board called special attention to the "impolicy of selling for exportation, the far greater part of the cattle which have obtained prizes, instead of retaining them for breeding purposes. Tempted by the high prices which of late years have been offered, and allured by the prospect of present gain, the farmers seem to have overlooked the eventual detriment, and the lasting injury, which conduct so short sighted, is calculated to inflict on their own interest. It must be evident that the only means of keeping up the reputation, and as a natural consequence the pecuniary value of our native breed, are to prevent its deterioration, to  eradicate its defects, and to perpetuate and increase its excellencies. Such results can only be obtained by selecting the finest and most perfect for reproduction; resolutely rejecting from the breeding stock, every animal in which defects are to be found. "Like produces like" being a maxim which every breeder must ever keep in view. For, as Bakewell, the COllings, and their followers succeeded in perfecting the English breeds, so the Jersey breeders can only hope to obtain a like success by imitating their example. The society has done its best to counteract the baneful effects of the practice of the practice alluded to, and to encourage the retention on the Island of the best cattle for breeding purposes, by giving premiums under certain restrictions for two-year-old heifers and cows from three to five years old; but its scanty funds have not allowed it to interfere in the only manner likely to be efficacious; viz. by offering prizes of sufficient value to caounterbalance the temptation to part with his best stock, which high prices too succesfully present to the unreflecting breeder. The Board appeals to the good sense of the agricultural community; and, though much cannot be expected from the small farmer, yet among agriculturists are men numerous and wealthy; who have both the intelligence to comprehend and the means to carry out, the views put forth in the preceding observations." Attention was again called to.
Rule 55, which provided that "no person is to receive a prize for bull, stallion, or boar until the animal shall have remained on the Island at least one whole season after the prizes were awarded."
Rule 56. "No person shall during April, May, and June allow the service of a prize bull to any other cow, than such as are the property of a member of the Society, on pain of forfeiture of the prize awarded."
Rule 57. "All heifers having had premiums adjudged to them shall be kept on the Island until they have dropped their first calf, or forfeit the premium, if previously sold for exportation."
The Paris Universal Exhibition in 1856 and 1857 also caused some little stir. Premiums amounting to £163 9s. 3d. were offered. And the French government engaged to transport and feed cattle from the ports of debarkation to Paris.
The formation of farmer` clubs in several parishes, St. Peters first, St. Owens following in 1852, was looked upon at first with some degree og jealousy, for it was thought the parent society might suffer thereby. Instead of which, in 1857 (Mr. C.P. Le Cornu then being secretary) one hundred more animals were exhibited than at the last meeting; this increase was attributed to the influence of the clubs, as each parish sent animals for competition, and to a general revival of emulation which was brought into the working of the Society. Five prizes were offered for butter. The reports, which began a few years previously to give the names of the winning animals, now continued them; and the prize list was as follows: - For the best yearling bull 30s., the second best 20s., the best of all in each parish 10s.,; for the best two-year-old bull 50s., the second best 30s.,for the best yearling heifer 12s 6d., the second best 10s., the best of all in each parish 7s 6d.; for the best two-year-old heifer 20s., the second best 10s., the best of all in each parish 10s.; for the best cow three to five  years old 20s, the second best 10s; for the finest bull, 33 points, £10 (1s6d service fee); for the best cow, 36 points, £4.

The Report in 1858 was retrospective. Thirty years ago the cattle were ill-fed, ill-shaped beasts that knew not the taste of mangolds, carrots, or swedes, scarcely that of hay; whose stabling was wretched, and whose winter food consisted chiefly of straw and a few watery turnips. Now they were well fed, improved in quality and symmetry, and well housed. The watery turnip, by careful husbandry, had become firm and rich as cheese; new buildings dotted the Island; and general prosperity dawned on the farmer. But the potatoe crop, once the principal export, had dwindled to a mere nominal item; and early cultivation began In 1859 the first shipment took place on the 18th of April, and extra vessels were put on to take the supply. It was still thought that the chief obstacle to success in the cattle shows was the trifling value of the prizes; and the President gave a £5 cup for the best milch cow three to five years old, which attracted several handsome animals. To show the public value of the cattle, it may be here worth while to mention that at an auction held at the time of the show, in 1859, a six month`s heifer realizes £16, a young cow £30, and a ten-years-old cow £20, all to remain on the Island; but this system of business does not appear to have been repeated.
 The show in 1862 brought 205 exhibits, of which 179 animals were decorated; and the Report, commenting on this great show, goes on to say: -"We may not have been struck by any very decided case of improvement; still it is certain, that indirectly some progress had been effected. To a very considerable extent the business of this Society is limited to the improvement of our insular race of cattle, which in itself is of the highest importance; here, therefore, we wish to impress an observation on those who study he improvement of their stock: -Beauty of symmetry alone cannot ever be the acme of perfection; the latter can only be attained when goodness and beauty are equally combined.
 "It is an established fact that the renown which the Jersey cow enjoys is attributable to the peculiar richness of its milk, as well as to its docility of temper and neatness of form. Now, as this richness is not so marked in some specimens as it is in others; it becomes advisable to make such selections in breeding, as will ensure further amelioration in this most essential and highly important point. To the generality of our farmers it is well known that the principal physical features which denote this superiority, are the orange colour of the ears and skin generally; the smallness and yellow appearance of the horn; fineness of the bone and the mellow texture of the hide; as well as the fully develpoed udder and milkveins - not the fleshy and coarse-boned beast with thick horns and palecoloured ears; these, although possessing every other point, should be entirely discarded, and when introduced at our exhibitions, such animals should be acted against by the judges with great severity, otherwise the reputation of the breed may materially suffer".
 The small number of animals exhibited at the R.A.S.E. show at Battersea was commented on; and, considering the demand for sale there, it was remarked that the trouble and outlay of  sending more animals would have been well repaid. The opening of another local farmers` club caused some comment. "It was feared these local associationens would raw from the Institution a great share of the support which it enjoys; but so far it has proved to the contrary. They diffuse much practical knowledge among farmers; so that their formation must be welcomed rather than otherwise.
 "Among the tenant farmers we are struck with the increasing number of French people who settle here -apparently, at first, with very little means at their command; nevertheless, it is equally surprising to see what they achieve, simply by avoiding any habits tending to luxury, and by devoting their whole attention and moments strictly to their business." Many of these eventually became breeders of good animals.
 It was urged in 1863 that more members should join the SOciety. ALthough it had existed thirty years, and originated so much good, there were many still indifferent to its existence, whilst others had left the Society when the opportunities of prize-gaining were less favourable to them.
 From the development of trade and facilities of transport, increased competition was expected from "our French neighbours", who with equal advantage of soil and climate, will undoubtedly compete for the entire supply of aou wants. French provisions had gained considerably, not because of any falling off in the culture of vegetables in Jersey, but because of the value of land and price labour in Normandy and Brittany being considerably below the insular standard. It may be safely said that, with the exception of cattle (which have found a ready sale at the established rates), all products of the farm have sold considerably lower than formerly.
 The introduction of French cattle was again brought under the notice of the Members. Some considered the introduction of them desirable on the ground of benefiting trade. The Committee, however, believed that the Island would derive little benefit therefrom. And it was thought probable that fraud would be practised and result in a serious loss. Others entertained a notion that crossing our cattle, with other varieties, would improve the present breed.. In contradiction to this, the judges`recommendation at the Meeting of the R.A.S.E. at Worcester was cited. This was, that, in future, the twoChannel Islands stocks should form separate classes, as the breeds of Jersey and Guernsey were becoming much sought after and appreciated; and it was further recommended to the Council of the R.A.S.E. (by a Petition from mr. Dumbrell), signed by the President, Secretary, and other officers of the Jersey Society) that the cattle, being of pure breed and adapted for a particular purpose, could not be fairly judged in a mixed class. Mr. Fisher Hobbs, of Boxted Lodge, Essex, was also of this opinion, and considered that, with fair play, nothing could exeel the breed. Mr. Dumbrell of Ditchling, also wrote a letter, deprecating the crossing of the breed, which was known for its extreme richness of milk; he stated that he had tried crosses with Ayrshires and Runts (Welsh cattle); and though by certainly thus gained a more fleshy animal and a larger produce of milk, yet the quality of the milk was sadly deteriorated. He further considered the breeds were "more extensively known and better appreciated in England than ever they were before; and  that, being recognised by the Royal Agricultural Society of England, they will become more valuable every day."
 An interchange of hospitality took place between the societies of Jersey and Guernsey. The Jersey deputation was much struck with the general order and well-to-do appearance of the farms in Guernsey, and also with thirty oxen remarkable for size, symmetry, and capability for fattening. A careful selection of seeds was recommended. Interchange of judges was suggested, and warmly approved; and it was remarked how widely the systems of husbandry practised in these islands differed from each other.
 Much excitement arose concerning a cargo of French heifers which were brought into the harbour and landed on the quay, then reshipped to England as cattle from Jersey. Great inquiry was made, and the debate on it was adjourned for a week. It was found the law had been violated, and steps were taken, by branding the cattle and otherwise, to prevent the repetition of such proceedings.
 The new law on the introduction of foreign cattle came into operation in 1864. It was not considered likely to effect any downward tendency in the market price of beef; but it was feared that the quality of the supply would fall off. On the whole, it was thought satisfactory to the agricultural community; as, owing to its stringent nature, all material injury to their interests would be prevented.
 A new trouble arose in an active trade in butter between St. Malo and England viâ Jersey. It appeared that, in many instances, this French butter had been introduced into the mother country as Jersey produce, the barrels being stamped "prime Jersey butter". It is probable that this is still practised; for Jersey butter continue to be quoted in the London Market, although the quantity sent from the Island rarely reaches the regular London markets, but is sold to private dealers and even to them in small quantities. *[The Customs returns for the year 1879 showed 1655 cwts of butter were exported against 1874 cwts in 1878 and 1934 cwts. in 1877]
 The funds of the SOciety were at a low ebb; and it was remarked that, unless supplies increased, a diminution in the prize list must follow. This was felt to be very different to the Royal Agricultural Society of England, who had offered nine prizes for Channel Islands cattle, six of which were won with Mr. Dumbrell`s Jerseys at Newcastle-upon-tyne.
 In 1865 the business of the SOciety was at last carried on by two departments - the Agricultural and the Horticultural, with beneficial results. The deficit of the last year, £22 17s 1d was made up, and a favourable balance left of £1 11s 1½d. The exhibition was sufficient to convince any one of the great improvement which was steadily taking place in the catlle, for 126 animals were exhibited and only two were held to be unworthy of the Society`s ribbon
 Mr. Dent Dent`s report of the R.A.S.E. show at Plymouth was quoted. This adcocated separating the classes for Jerseys and Guernsys, and his views were confirmed by the judges. They reported that the classes were well filled, and that generally the animals displayed a marked improvement on those shown on former occasions. Severe competition took place among the cows and heifers, arising out of the great improvement made by the Channel Islanders in combining beauty of form with that quality  for which the breeds are so remarkable, viz. richness of dairy produce. It was found difficult to award prizes in mixed classes. Some distinction was suggested in the classification, so as to encourage separate competition for each breed. Mr. Dent added that he hoped the Council would follow suggestion, as the Americans were buying so freely. Prices were consequently raised. He took the occasion to protest against the neglect of milking properties by the English breeders of fashinable stock.
 The committee also impressed on Jersey breeders greater attention being paid to the milk-producing properties of the cow, and urged that they should persevere in weeding out every animal which which might have the least tendency to deficiency in quantity of milk, but even more to any want of richness of milk; and they urged the jdges to specially examine these points at shows
 The export trade was very brisk during the first six months of the year, but during the last six, little business was done. This was owing to the fearful calamity of the cattle plague which had befallen the agriculturists of England. The committe felt thankful that the visitation had not come on the Island. The local authorities had done their utmost to guard against the introduction of this terrible visitant.
 The year 1866 will always be memorable as that in which the Jersey Herd Book was started. The necessity and object of this work will be found fully set forth later on. Members were congratulated on the gradual disappearance of the cattle plague, and on the renewal of the export trade. The shows of the year were good; 42 bulls and 182 cows were approved, and the bulls were noticed as being above the average in size, condition, and symmetry. Potatoes, too, yielded well this season, and made a higher value than had been the case for many years.
 New members and promises of support came during 1867, so that finances improved, and remunerative prices were obtained for all produce. Mr. Le Bas shipped 2041 head of cattle valuede at £29.000. Farmers were invited to cooperate in carrying out the principles of the Herd Book; and the pedigree points would be discontinued in the future scale. The effect of careful breeding was shown to the members by the grand result of Mr. Dauncey`s sale in England, when 90 animals realized £3737 9s 6d. At the show the first prize two-year-old heifer was sold for £38, and the first prize yearling bull for £42. Attention was against called to the export of butter from France, and farmers were reminded that unless more attention was paid to the making of it, they would lose the advantage derived from the English markets; for first-class Jersey butter commanded prices in London equal to the best English made. The favourable balance of £20 19s 9½d led to a hope that in 1868 higher prizes might be offered.
 Several Americans visited the Island in 1868. The first prize yearling bull was sold to them for £45, and they paid much attention to pedigree stock and registered cattle. Exhibitors were once more warned of the evil practice of exporting prize cattle, particularly the bulls, for the sake of a liberal sum. They were again assured they would defeat, by such a course, the objects of the Society to improve the breed. The news of the liberal prizes offered by the R.A.S.E. at Leicester  was received with pleasure. The Society seemed to view much satisfaction the success of their cattle, as dairy stock, both in England and America, and they attributed it, in a large measure, to the improvement effected in the breed in the Island. The encouragement given in England to the growth of beef, whilst overlooking to a great extent the milk and butter qualities, was quoted as a wholesome warning. Again were their members urged never to sacrifice rich milking qualities to shape or appearance.
 The exhibition in 1879 was one of the best and most successful for the sale of stock exhibited. The first  prize two-year old heifer realized £60, two parochial prize heifers £50 each, two heifers £46 each, three cows £40 each, eight heifers £30 each. Altogether 31 animals were bought for exportation to America at £995. The funds were still inadequate to retain on the Island the prize bulls by liberal premiums; but it was resolved to offer prizes for the best yearling bull and yearling heifer approved and registered in the Herd Book.
 Fifty new members came in during 1871, and £102 was offered in prizes. This was the largest sum since the States discontinued their grant. The bad season caused hay to reach £10 per ton and straw £7. It was with pleasure that the Society saw the high prices given for pedigree stock, and that the £10 and £5 prizes - to retain the yearling bulls on the Island - had both been claimed. Mr. C.P. Le Cornu (who had been elected President) was congratulated on the success of his efforts in obtaining separate classes at the R.A.S. E. shows for Guernsey and Jersey cattle.The states granted this year £50 solely in premiums for bulls; a restriction which was gladly enforced. At the Channel Islands Show, held in Jersey, 274 Jerseys and Guernseys were exhibited, and £ 150 awarded in prizes. Mr. Le Cornu sold Blue Bell, a two-year-old heifer, to go to New York, U.S.A., for 100 guineas, the highest price up to that time realized on the Island. The Board expressed its gratification at the value set on the prize stock of the Island for breeding purposes a proof in their opinion, of the confidence felt in the awards of the Judges. The Board wished, however, to impress on farmers the necessity of selecting bulls only from the best and richest milkers.
 Another great show was held on the 12th june, 1872. This was the most striking event of that year. 204 females, 32 bulls, 16 horses and 11 piges were exhibited. Foreseeing evil from the taste of the American and English buyers for whole coloured animals, the Committe urged the necessity of greater attention being paid to rich butter and milking qualities than to the mere colour of the animal.
 In the following year the demand still growing for whole or selfcoloured animals, the Committee feared it might lead to establishing a fashion which, if not checked, would ultimately lead many breeders to forget the real and true merit of the Jersey. The report therefore vigorously and admirably protested thus: -"Let henceforth such fanciful ideas as black tails and black tongues be simply estimated at their proprer value; but let the large and rich yield of milk be ever the breeder`s ambition to procure." The observations of Mr. Waring, the editor of the AMerican Herd Book, on the same subject, were approved.
 Greater profits than ever continued to be realized by the  sale of potatoes and catttle; one farmer , in St. Lawrence, obtained £206 5s for 2½ vergéees (equal to at little more than one English acre) of early kidney potatoes. Prosperity, as often occurs, led to speculation, and two of the local banks stopped payment in this year, and great pecuniary difficulties arose.
 At the April Show, 1874, Mr. C. Renouf`s bull Duke was awarded thirty-one points and appears to be the only animal that ever obtained the full number.
 In 1875 experiences had shown the necessity of mote minutely detailing the several points recognized as the standard of perfection, and of establishing a ratio of them. In drawing up the annexed scale, preponderance was given to such points as denote richness of quality and produce; and no fanciful ideas of taste or fashion were allowd to creep in.
Articles      Ratio Scale of Points for Bulls       Points
1. Registered pedigree...............................  5
2. Head fine and tapering, forehead broad............  5
3. Check small.......................................  2
4. Throat clean......................................  4
5 Muzzle dark, encircled by light color, with
  nostrils, high and open............................  4
6. Horns small, not thick at the base, crumpled, yellow
   tipped with black.................................  5
7. Ears small and thin, and of deep orange colour
   within............................................  5
8. Eyes full and lively..............................  4
9. Neck arched, powerful, but not coarse and heavy...  5
10. Withers fine, shoulders flat and sloping, chest
   broad and deep....................................  4
11.Barrel hooped, broad, deep and well ribbed up.....  5
12.Back straight from the withers to the setting on
   of the tail.......................................  5
13. Back broad across the loins......................  3
14. Hips wide apart and the fine in the bone.........  3
15. Rump long, abroad and level......................  3
16. Tail fine, reaching the hocks, and hanging at
    right angles with................................  3
17. Hide thin and mellow, covered with fine soft hair. 4
18. Hide of a yellow colour........................... 4
19. Legs short, straight and fine, with small hoofs... 4
20. Arms full and swelling above the knees............ 3
21. Hind quarters from the hock to point of rump long,
    wide apart and well filled up..................... 3
22. Hind legs squarcely placed when viewed from
    behind, and not to cross or sweep in walking...... 3
23. Nipples to be squarcely placed and wide apart..... 5
24. Growth............................................ 4
25. General appearance................................ 5
    Perfection...................100

 No prize to be awarded to bulls having less than 80 points. Bulls having obtained 75 points shall be allowed to be branded.

 Ratio Scale of Points for Cows and Heifers
Articles        Points
1.  Registered pedigrees..............................  5
 2.  Head small, fine and tapering.....................  3
3.  Check small, throat clean.........................  4
4.  Muzzle dark and encircled by a light colour, with
    nostrils high and open............................  4
5.  Horns small, not thick at the base, crumpled, yellow,
    tipped with black.................................  5
6.  Ears small and thin, and of a deep orange colour
    within............................................  5
7.  Eye full and placid...............................  3
8.  Neck straight, fine and lightly placed on the
    shoulders.........................................  3
9.  Withers fine, shoulders flat and sloping, chest
    broad and deep..................................... 4
10. Barrel hooped, broad and deep, being well ribbed up 5
11. Back straight from the withers to the setting on
    of the tail........................................ 5
12. Back broad across the loins........................ 3
13. Hips wide apart and fine ine the bone; rump long,
    broad and level.................................... 5
14. Tail fine, reaching the hocks, and hanging at right
    angles with the back............................... 3
15. Hide thin and mellow, covered with fine soft hair.. 4
16. Hide of a yellow colour............................ 4
17. Legs short, straight and fine, with small hoofs.... 3
18. Arms full and swelling above the knees............. 3
19. Hind quarters from the hock to point of rump long,
    wide apart, and well filled up..................... 3
20. Hind legs squarely placed when viewed from behind,
    and not to cross or sweep in walking............... 3
21. Udder large, not fleshy, running well forward, in
    line with the belly, and well up behind............ 5
22. Teats moderately large, yellow, of equal size, wide
    apart, and squarcely placed........................ 5
23. Milk veins about the udder and abdomen prominent... 4
24. Growth............................................. 4
25. General appearance................................. 5
     Perfection..............100

No prize shall be awarded to cows having less than 80 points.
No prize shall be awarded to heifers having less than 71 points.
 Cows having obtained 75 points and heifers 65, shall be allowed to be branded.
 The Articles Nos 21 and 23 shall be deducted from the number required for perfection in heifers, as their udder and milk veins cannot be fully developed.
 It may be as well here to state, that the practice in judging on the Island, is to go carefully over all the animals; draft them, and gradually select the best, as is done in this country; the scale of points is then brought forward; and, in giving the number of points to each animal, an opportunity is afforded of correcting any oversight.

 At the show, May 28, 1874, Mr. Charles Nicolle offered a cup for the cow with the best escutcheon according to the Guénon system. The following year and since, this prize has been continued by voluntary contributions. The system has now been known and practised in France for nearly half a century.  Its discoverer, Mons. Francois Guénon, of Lisbourne, was a poor studious lad, the son of a gardener. He read books on botany, agriculture, and geometry, to know the external signs of classifying plants and vegetables; and to estimate their qualities and produce. When fourteen years old, he was tending the milch cow of the house; and scratching the hair, that grew against the grain above the udder, he observed a kind of bran or powder fall off. Remembering that some one had said cows should have external signs of qualities and defects, he began to reason, and concluded that as signs existed for the good or bad qualities of plants, there ought also to exist analogous signs in the animals kingdom. He examined other cows, and observed that the gravure (better known in England as the escutcheon), from which the bran fell, varied in form. In length, in 1814, he concluded from the different varieties of these forms, that one could know the qualities and faults of each animal. He visited fairs, markets, cowhouses; interrogated cattle dealers and veterinarians; and i 1822 commenced himself in the traffic of cows of all countries. He multiplied his experience, made exact notes of his observations, and finally classified them. Selecting animals first into three groups, large, middle, and small size; he divided the signs into eight classes or families, and each class into eight orders, from which he could determine the quantity of milk any cow would give daily, the longest and the shortest time they would hold their milk, and its quality. In 1837 he laid his observations before the Agricultural Committee of Bordeaux, who pronounced the system infallible; and the following year before the Agricultural Society of Aurillac, who put his observations to a practical test, allowing even for the food of the cow, and they were convinced of its thruth. Each Society awarded M. Guénon a gold medal, proclaimed him member, and subscribed to his work. The system, by whose who have studied it - and it certainly does require both study and memory - is found to be very trustworthy; moreover, it holds good with bulls and with heifers from three months old; and, when thoroughly known, is possibly very the external evidence of the milking and dairy qualities.
 The prevalence of the foot-and-mouth disease in England somewhat checked the briskness of trade in 1876; and it saisfactory to know that the Island has kept free from this troublesome complaint. The interchange of visits continued; the congress of the "Association Normande" was visited at Bayeux, and the "Association Bretonne " at Vitré.
 The following year, 1877, these associations were invited to Jersey, where a fête was held in August. At this, among other rural attractions, an immense show of cattle was held. The great prices obtained for the show animals were again viewed with alarm; for the first and second prize bulls were respectively sold for £75 and £50 each; £100 was obtained for a heifer, and several others were sold at prices varying from £30 to 370 each. The report then goes on to say:-"It will be observed that we are steadily obtaining an increasing value for our stock; to this extent, indeed, that whilst the Society, supported by the States, has offered considerable sums as premiums, for the purpose of retaining the prize cattle on the Island, so ready as sale, a high figures, offers itself, that  the forfeiture of the prizes becomes a secondary consideration with proprietors. As the duty of your Committee is to stimulate and watch over every interest connected with the agriculture of the Island, it is deemed expedient occasionally to repeat warnings which have before been given; and, of all others, if there be one in particular which needs attention in reference to cattle breeding, it is that Jersey farmers should always breed in the first place for quality, and for beauty in the second. Fanciful tastes and colours may continue to guide the lovers of fashion; but it must ever be remembered that dairy properties are the true points of excellence in the Jersey cow. The Committee, therefore, again desire to impress on all the necessity of discarding every animal from prize-taking which does not possess the unmistakable signs denoting richness of produce."
 The show in May 1878 was the largest on record; 213 cows and heifers competed, and the cow classes were admirable. It became necessary again to endeavour to check the exportation of prize animals by forfeiture of the prize money, and a fine was imposed as well. The report adds:-" The Committee further hopes, by increasing still more the value of the prizes in these classes, to retain the best bulls for the Island." Special attention was called to the show at Kilburn; and the members were advised to prepare for keen competition, and to go resolved to support the reputation of the island Breed, by showing animals of the best forms, and - most typical of real merit -quality.
 The show did give satisfaction; Mr. Bowstead`s report of the animals exhibited was considered encouraging to the Island, and it was gratifying to find that the breed had held its own against the English stock, for both champion prizes were won by native animals. The London Dairy Show was commented on less favourably; and it was considered that "the rules to guide the judges there, were not based upon those acknowledged by the Society." The exports, however, fell off in 1879, owing to the depression in England and to the American restrictions on the importation of cattle. Produce was scarce, excepting early potatoes, which yielded a marvellous return, and prices generally became low as the year closed.

 The following is the Prize List for the Bull Show held April 3, 1879:-
Class 9. Bulls born on or after the 1st December 1877. First  prize £20; second,£15; third, £10; fourth,£5; parochial  prize,£1.

Class 10. Bulls born or after the 1st December, 1876, and  before the 1st December 1877. First prize,£7; second,£5;  third,£3.

Class 10½. Bulls born on or after the 1st December, 1875, and  before the 1st December, 1876. Prize,£5.

Herd Book stock open to all comers:-

Class 11. To bulls born or after 1st December, 1877. First  prize £10; second,£5; third,£3.

  All bulls having obtained prizes at this show must be reexhibited at the show to be held on the 22nd May, otherwise the prize will be forfeited.

 Bulls in Classes 9 and 11, obtaining 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th prizes, must remain in the Island for publice service thirteen calendar months; Bulls in Class 10, until the 1st December, 1879; Bulls in Class 10½ till the 1st September, 1879; and Bulls obtaining Parochial prizes, six calendar months; all dating from the 3rd April, 1879.

 The charge for service of Members`Cattle not to exceed ten shillings per animal; and not to be less than one pound for Non-Members`Cattle.

 Exhibitors having taken prizes, and not complying with the above Rules, shall forfeit their prize money; and those in Class 9 shall, besides, pay a fine of £10 if the first prize, £7 if the second, £4 if the third, and £2 if the fourth; and those in Class 11, £5 if the first prize, £3 if the second, and £1 if the third.

 Special prizes be awarded for the richest type according to Guénon`s system:- in Class 9, prize £2; Class 10,prize £1.

 List of Prizes to be awarded at the Show of Cows, Heifers, and Butter, on May 22nd, 1879:-

Class 1. Heifers born on or after December 1st, 1877:- First  prize, £2; second,£1; third,10s.; fourth,5s.; Parochial  prize, 10s.

Class 2. Heifers in Calf, born on or after Dec. 1st, 1876:-  First prize,£3; second, £2; third,£1; fourth, 10s.;  Parochial,10s.

Class 3. Heifers in milk, born before Dec. 1st, 1876, and less  than three years old:- First prize, £2; second,£1; third  10s.

 Herd Book Stock open to all comers: -Class 4. Heifers, born on or after Dec. 1st., 1877, first prize, £1; second, 10s.

Class 5. Heifers, born on or after Dec. 1st, 1876, first prize  £1; second, 10s.

Class 6. Cowa from 3 to 5 years inclusive: First prize,£3;  second,£2; third,£1; fourth,10s; Parochial,10s.

Class 7.Cows above 5 years old. First prize, £3; second, £2;  third, £1; fourth, 10s; Parochial prize, 10s.

Extra:- For cows, prizetakers, which are thereby disqualified  from competing in this class; First prize, £1; second,  10s.

Note.- No second, third, or fourth prizes will be awarded in the above Classes, unless there are 12 animals entered, except  in the Class of Heifers in Milk, where the lowest number is fixed at 6, and in the Extra Class for Cows at 5, except on the special recommendation of the Judges.

Class 8. Cows giving the richest milk on trial, the said
animals having calved since Jan.1st, 1879, and producing  2 pots of milk *[One pot is equal to two imperial quarts]  at one milking. First prize, 30s; second, 15s.; third,  10s.

Class 9. Butter, best and finest pound. First prize, 10s;  second, 7s 6d.; third, 5s; fourth,2s.

 Special prizes will be awarded for the richest type according to Guénon`s system viz. Class 1, £1; CLass 2, £1.

 The Society, at the close of the year 1879, numbered 247 members; of which 55 were £1 and 192 were ten shillings subscribers, out of a population of 2465 occupiers of land. The States`grant consists of £150. Of this £100 is divided in prizes of £10 among ten parishes, and £50 in prizes for Bulls. The entrance fees for Cattle at the shows bring in from £5 to £7; but the forfeited prize money amounts to a considerable sum; in 1877, it was £46 10s. The money received at the exhibitions scarcely meets the expenses. One shilling is charged for admission, the members and their families being admitted free; in very good years, £7 to £8 is received; but generally it rarely exceeds £5. Seeing, therefore, the small sum which the Society has at its command, it is the more surprising that so much good has been effected. The work, like that of the Herd Book, is honorary; and except a small rent for "the first floor over the little seed shop in Bath Street", which is used as a Board Room, the bulk of the money is expended in prizes and the encidental expenses in connexion with the shows.
 It may be interesting to show, as far as can be ascertained, the number of animals that have been exported from Jersey. Previous to 1862 the returns of all the exports from the whole of the Channel Islands were put together by the Custom House. The export from each island was not kept separately until 1862; therefore the returns prior to that year cannot be quoted accurately for Jersey.
 The following Table of the animals shipped from Jersey to England and elsewhere is compiled from various sources * [ The figures from 1803 to 1812 are obtained from Quayle`s work; from 1823 to 1825 from a "Brief description of Jersey;" from 1844 to 1858 from the Reports of the Royal Agricultural Society of Jersey.]

Year  Cows and Heifers Bulls  Calves  Oxen    Total
1803..............406  2    408
1804............  267  2    269
1805...........   428  6    434
1806...........   754  11    765
1807..........    712  22    734
1808............. 490  9    499
1809............. 790  19    809
1810............. 988  17        1005
1811............. 737  17    754
1812 to Aug. 10.. 534  7    541
 1823.............1500  18   5       1523
1824............ 1614  28  36       1678
1825...........  1796  33  69    35      1933
1844..........   1450  31        1481
1845..........   1239  36        1275
1846..........   1660  27        1687
1847..........   1188  26        1214
1848.........           1325
1849..........             1521
1850..........           1743
1851..........            1903
1852..........           1625
1854..........   1559  43        1602
1857..........   1744  37        1781
1858..........   1562  31        1593

 The following are the returns, compiled from the Customs, of the Animals shipped from Jersey to England* [I am indebted for this information to Mr. R. Butterfield of the Bills of Entry Office, Custom House, London]

Year  Cows and Heifers       Bulls  Total
1862........  1783   30  1813
1863.......  2379   38  2417
1864........  2793   18  2811
1865........     2272   16  2288
1866........  1610   4  1614
1867........  2456   27  2483
1868........  2147   41  2188
1869........  1976   59  2035
1870........  1751   51  1802
1871........  1948   54  2002
1872........  1859   51  1910
1873........  1767   59  1826
1874........  1577   47  1624
1875........  1540   61  1601
1876........  2094       108  2202
1877........  2316   60  2376
1878........  1992   75  2067
1879........  1757   70  1827

 It may be interesting to show the number of Live Stock in Jersey as published in the Agricultural Returns+ [These figures were supplied to med by Mr. Pearson, of the Agricultural Returns Office; the returns for the years 1871 and 1874 were not obtained in time for publication]

Year ending Cow and Heifers    Others than those  total
                  in milk or in calf  in milk or in calf
June 25, 1867.......  4270   5811     10081
 -       1868.......  6420    5805     12225
 -    1869.......  6504   5254     11758
 -    1870.......  6101   4972     11073
 -    1872........ 5887   5054     10941
 -    1873.......  5817   5003     10820
 -       1875.......  6103    5418     11521
 -    1876.......  6053   5249     11302
June 4,  1877.......  5742   5264     11006
  -       1878.......  5605   5145     10750
 -    1879.......  5869   5205     11074

 Exportation of Cattle from the Island of Jersey, extracted from the Veterinary Enspector`s registry. Mr- H.E. Poole, M.R.C.V.S.* [This Table is most likely to be accurate, inasmuch as the customs returns are often in excess of the number actually shipped. Notice is given to the Masters of vessels that so many cattle will be shipped on such a day; when the day arrives, it often happens that two or three animals, for sundry reasons, cannot be sent, and the actual number exported is consequently less than that recorded in the Custom House]

Months 1876  1877  1878  1879
    Cows Bulls   Cows Bulls  Cows  Bulls  Cows Bulls
January   94    7      84    5      87    6     95    6
February 128    2      90    5     110    7     97    2
March    246    7     136    4     193    5    154    4
April    258    6     243    8     283    8    226    4
May      227    5     238    2     328   10    222    4
June     189    4     161    5     203    6    220    5
July      91    3     174    9     141    4    112    4
August   116    9     187    7     135   10     78    4
September186    7     186    7     140    9     96    7
October  150    5     107    1     157    6    154   14
November 114    2     158    7      82    6    100    5
December  35    2      57    2      73    2     21
 
        1834   59    1821   62    1932   79   1575   59

   Summary
 1876... 1834 Cows, 59 Bulls......1893
 1877... 1821 Cows, 62 Bulls......1883
 1878... 1932 Cows, 79 Bulls......2011
 1879... 1575 Cows, 59 Bulls......1634

 During 1878 nearly 100 old cows were shipped to France, but are not included in the above list.

 The Herd Book is entirely due to the forethought and untiring efforts of Mr. Chas P.Le Cornu. A Jerseyman by birth and lineage, he took an early and active part, as a proprietor and breeder, in the Agricultural Society of the Island. His name is mentioned on the Board of Management and as having acted as a Judge in 1851. He therefore must have worked with many of the principal founders and members of the Society. In 1857 he became Honorary Secretary, which office he seems to have filled for ten consecutive years; afterwards he became Vice-President, and finally President of the Society in 1870-12. In this course he seems to have followed in the steps of Col. Le. Couteur, and it is even still more curious that he now holds the same post of Colonel and Adjudant-General, which the Colonel filled, in the Militia - a MIlitia the oldest in the world, having been established as far back as the reign of King John. Thus, happily, have the sword and the ploughshare been united. To English breeders he is well known; having frequently acted as Judge at the Royal Shows; and also as the author of  the Prize Essays on the Agricultural of the Channel Islands and on the Potatoe in Jersey *[See Royal Agricultural Society`s Journals, vol.xx p. 32, 1859, and vol vi. second series, p. 127, 1870] Consequently he was not only practically acquainted with the breeding and rearing of animals, but also with the working and requirements of his own Island Society. He foresaw, many years before the Herd Book was started, the necessity of some further classification of the animals in a show, where upwards of two hundred were exhibited. The standard and mangement of the English Herd Book, into which he inquired, did not meet his notions of the character of the work required on the Island; so he determined to work our a unique system of his own. His principle was to sift, as it were, these large gatherings into three classes; by highly commending the best for their quality, symmetry, and constitution, and their butyraceous or milk-flowing properties; commending the second best, and rejecting the remainder or third class; and by examining and registering the approved offspring, he hoped in time to root out the bad animals, so that with six or seven registered crosses animals might be bred more to a certainty. Frequent complaints, however, arose at the exhibitions, of fraudulent practices concerning the pedigree points; and opinion was very much divided as to the continuance of these points. Some maintained, that under the system practised up to 1865, it was impossible to precent false declarations; whilst others were unanimous, that the points (if proper means were taken to ensure faithful entries) were of the greatest value and importance. Some, again, contended that as there was but one breed on the Island, a Herd Book was unnecessary. At last, however, after great opposition, a meeting was held on the 3rd of March, 1866, of the President the Rev. W. Lemprière, himself the Secretary, and Messrs. T. Le Cornu, A. Le Gallais, H.J. Le Feuvre, J. Vaudin, and twenty members of the local Farmers` Clubs, who were invited to cooperate with the Society to take steps "for the formation of a Herd Book for the Cattle of the Island of Jersey." Large meetings of the several Parish Farmers` Clubs were held, where he placed the advantages of the Herd Book system before the members, and thus by degrees difficulties were surmounted and the people became convinced.
 It may not be out of place here to quote the Report of the Royal Jersey Agricultural Society on pedigree: -"It may be alleged by some that, as in this Island there is only one, and thoroughly, distinct race of cattle, and which has been so preserved in its integrity for numberless generations, there can be bo necessity for taking into such particular consideration the question of pedigree; that, in short, the cattle comprising the whole of the Island stock being of native birth, and the produce of parents of one and the same race, it must follow that they are all of equal value as regards blood.
 "If, on first consideration, such an argument as this could in any way be entertained theoretically, it certainly, could not be maintained for one moment when practically applied; for whilst admitting that the whole cattle in the Island are without the slightest cross with foreign stock, nevertheless, in the number there are many different strains, or, it may be said, different families, which vary immensely in some of the most important features of type and character. Hence it is that we see cows which yield a greater quantity of milk than  others; some scanty milkers with a tendency rather to fatten, others which carry little flesh and that milk well up to the moment of calving. It cannot, therefore, be gainsaid that although the whole may comprise one common race, still there is a vast and most important difference in the value of the various strains which are comprised in it. Thus it is why the careful and intelligent breeder sees the necessity of avoiding what is bad; and equally of selecting what is best, in order to maintain his stock without alloy; and of preventing, as much as possible, degeneracy in the qualities of the strain which he has adopted as his particular stock.
 "The question now arises, How is this to be attained? We answer, By strict attention to pedigree. Among breeders the value of this has frequently been a vexed question. Careful, observing, and skilful men have frequently come to different conclusions; some affecting to consider blood more slightly than others who, perhaps relying altogether on blood, paid too little regard to physical appearance. But there is one established rule in nature which experience has taught us, - that a family of cattle which has been bred closely together, acquires a fixed type and possesses a wonderful power of communicating their peculiarities to their progeny. You will see the same form, the same colour, the same propensities, and frequently the same features transmitted with fidelity; and, as by this rule, blood communicates its valuable properties, it also carries with it its defects; and therefore, even before admitting a stock-getter, however pure in blood that animal may be, he should be thoroughly examined; and, if he does not possess all the requirements of his family type and character, he should be carefully avoided, otherwise degeneracy must most undoubtedly follow. To obtain the best results, we must breed from the best animals of the best blood and form; and from the product we must again select, with the greatest care, those possessing the most valuable qualities and the fewest defects. This has been the system upon which all the renowned breeders in England have established those valuable herds which to-day are known by the names of their respective founders.
 "Another question may arise, since it is impossible to carry out the system without breeding ind and in -Is this advisable? If we look upon the habits founded in nature, we shall find that breeding in and in prevails extensively. This, perhaps, of itself should be sufficient to determine; at any rate if not practised too closely, the system cannot be wrong; but we have also as a guarantee the results obtained by scientific breeders, which show us that to obtain permanency of type, this system must be followed; studying the choice of parents, with the greatest possible accumulation of proved blood and form, and carefully avoiding any cross with animals of a different strain. It is so well established, that it need hardly here be recorded that, the most notorious animals which have figured in the history of English cattle, have been bred by the system which we here desire to advocate.
 "In this Island, as we have already said, we possess a totally distinct and special race, and which is becoming yearly more appriciated; and although the race is unmixed, there is so much difference in the value of the thousands comprised in it, that the Committee feel anxious to enforce the absolute necessity of following the principles set forth by those eminent  breeders who, by their careful study, have attained a worldwide-reputation in their profession, and who, at this day, are the masters of animals so valuable as scarecely to be bought at any price."
 After several meetings of the Herd Book Committee a number of regulations were laid down. These regulations, practicable on the Island, would scarecely be entertained in England, if, indeed, they could be carried out; and even on the Island, for several years, they received much opposition. The first regulation insisted that stock, from which produce is to be hereafter registered, must be submitted for examination, and must be approved by the Judges appointed for that purpose, and that examinations take place in 1866, 1867, and 1868. The first examination was held on the 4th April. Six Judges were appointed. Breeders and owners brought up their cattle to St. Heliers, and a staff of men brought the animals before the Judges to be examined. To subscribers to the Agricultural Society a fee of 6d. was charged, but to non-subscribers 2s 6d. Forty-two bulls were registered as foundation stock, in a tabular form, giving the number of the animal, its proprietor`s name and parish, its qualification, name, colour, age at qualifacation, date of qualification, distinctive markings, and remarks, prize notes &c. This form has been adhered to, and is published as the Herd Book.
 A week later 182 cows were examined and approved. By the end of 1868 altogether 92 bulls and 381 cows and heifers had been examined. Mr. C.P. Le Cornu undertook the honorary duties of secretary and treasurer. The first year found him fifteenpence halfpenny out of pocket, the second year the deficit amounted to 6s 9½d; but the third year brought in a balance of £5 11 s. The Presidents of the Farmers` Clubs were then requested to consult their members, if they were still of opinion to maintain the book on its present footing. The reply was favourable; a general feeling prevailed to support the book, "without giving to the cattle entered therein, any points for pedigree at the shows of the Royal Jersey Agricultural Society."
 Having shown how the foundation stock was established, it now becomes a more difficult task to show the working of the book for pedigree stock. Each proprietor of a foundation bull has to keep a correct entry of all qualified cows and heifers served by his bull. He has also to give a certificate, to the proprietor of the cow or heifer, after the service. Within twenty-four hours after the cow or heifer has calved, the proprietor has to call in a neighbour (who must be a member of the Society), to attest that the identical cow has calved, and to note the sex and markings of the calf. This calf has then to be registered on the books of the Herd Book Society between the age of six and nine months, and the date of birth is compared with the date of service given on the certificate by the proprietor of the bull. If the calf be a bull, it has to come up for examination when a year old, and is not allowed to serve until it is a year old; if a heifer, when it has calved its first calf, so that its udder may be judged. If, however, through any blemish this animal is rejected, it is permitted to come up again for examination after its next calving, and even a third time, in the hope that improvement may have taken place and that the judges might see fit to eventually give it a  commendation.
 It may well be conceived how onerous are these restrictions. As a natural consequence, the number of qualified pedigree animals continued to be small, and up to the end of 1871 only 28 bulls and 9 heifers received numbers. It was, however, found necessary to again open the foundation stock. In 1869, 25 bulls and 92 cows, and in 1870, 33 bulls and 251 cows were examined, and small prizes of £2 and £1 were offered for the produce of registered animals. In 1871, the fund having increased to £14 18s 3½d., it was resolved to give £6 for Herd Book stock at the Channel Islands Exhibition; but only pedigree stock was to be examined. In January 1872 a report was published informing the public of the steady and continued progress of the Institution; that the small number of qualified animals was due to the neglect of farmers to register their young stock within the appointed period of six and nine months; and that Herd Book animals had won the first and third prizes, two silver, and five bronze medals at the Channel Islands Exhibition.
 The small number of qualified animals is not to be wondered at, seeing the troublesome regulations that are enforced. In 1872 the pedigree stock only increased to 47 bulls and 22 cows; so that it was resolved to reopen the foundation stock in 1873 and 1874, and charge 5s for approved animals. Mr. Waring wrote a letter urging the entry of worthy animals, that they might be entered in the American Herd Register,* [The Herd Register of the American Jersey Cattle Club has reached six volumes. It is published in New York, in tabulated form, somewhat after the system of the Herd Book of the Island of Jersey, thus: - Number of animal, name, sire and dam, colour and distinguishing marks, breeder, when dropped, when imported, by whom, from what place, on what vessel &c., owner. Proofsheets of these entries are issued in a monthly bulletin, and owners and others are requested to report all errors. The first volume, which was illustrated with photographs of animals, was issued i 1871, and the last the sixth volume 1879. 3500 bulls are numbered and 7700 cows. There are nine articles of Constitution; 150 members were elcted up to April 1879; and a scale of points, after that drawn up in Jersey, is printed. Certain inquiries were made of Col. Le Couteur on behalf of the Club when it was first started, and in reply thereto he wrote the following letter:-
    "Belle Vue, Jersey, September 14, 1869
 "I have only experience to add to anything I may have written in my essay on the Jersey cow in the Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England in 1845, which has reappeared in the Transactions of the New York State Agricultural Society of 1850. Our farmers have not not the singular variety of ideas as to the appearance and character of our breed which you describe to prevail among the members of your Club.
 "Our breed i believed to be a local pure breed, its original milking and butyraceous properties having been improved more than three-quarters of a century back by carefully crossing in the line: in that view, then, without much regard to beauty of form. Later, since the formation of our present Society, of which I was the first honorary secretary in 1834, great attention has been constantly paid to combine  beauty of form with butter-producing habits.
 "The outline history of our breed is this:- In the year 1789 the Jersey cow was already considered so good, so superior to any then known, I imagine, that an act of our local legislature was passed by which the importation into Jersey of cow, heifer, calf, or bull was prohibited.
 "Guernsey cattle are not deemed foreign, but there are scarcely ever a dozen of that breed in our Island. They are of larger bone and carcase, considered to be coarse, though famous milkers, requiring much more food then the Jersey. Our judges at our cattle shows have discarded both them and their progeny.
 "Those enterprising American farmers who have visited Jersey, and have found a marked difference to exist between the cattle of the eastern district and those of the western district, being cursory visitors, may not have been made aware of what I am to state. I believe the type to be the same. The difference in appearance is thus accounted for: the north and north-west coast of Jersey is high and precipitous, a bold syenite rock rising two hundred and more feet from he level of the sea. Its nearest shelter in a westerly or south-westerly direction is the island of Newfoundland or the British-American shore. South-west gales prevail here nine months out of the twelve. While I am writing, a hurricane from the south-west has burst over us and burned all the exposed trees like a flame; it has ruined scores of orchards and gardens, levelled many trees, leaving the pastures like damaged hay. Hence this elevated coast has usually a short, scant, rich, nutritious herbage, from being so frequently saturated with saline moisture. Thus the cattle on this side are small, fine limbed, and hardy. The southward half of Jersey may be called an inclined plane, gradually and beautifully slanting to the sea shore, watered by innumerable streams. Part of it is a rich alluvial soil and meadow land - so sheltered and warmed as to produce fruit and vegetables a fortnight or three weeks sooner than in my neighbourhood. The cattle of this district are, consequently, fed on a richer pasture. They are larger in carcase, some think handsomer, than those of the upland. I consider them to be more delicate.
 "The late Earl Spencer, former President of the Royal Agricultural Society, England, the able and worthy contemporary of Bates, Booth, and other noted Shorthorn breeders had a fine little herd of Jersey cows, When on a visit to him at Althorpe, in 1839, he strongly advised me to recommend our farmers never to venture on a foreign cross, nor with Shorthorns or Devons: merely to cross the cows of the low rich pastures with the hardy bulls of the exposed northern coasts and vice versâ. We had established a character in our cows for creaming and milking habits peculiar to our crumpled-horned race, to hold to that alone, by which means our breed might continue as renowned in the next century as it has been so in the present one. Many have held to that sound advice.
 "I shall be much honoured by receiving a copy of your Jersey Herd Book, and shall, moreover, feel much gratified, if what I have written shall prove interesting or useful to you.
 "We have never had rinderpest or cattle plague in Jersey."]
where no animals from England or France were permitted. He also  advised that attention should be paid to the dairy qualities, rather than to the colour of the animal; and he deprecated the practice of killing bad-coloured bull calves which were born from good dairy cows; and also of saving goodcoloured bull calves from dams which were bad milkers.
 The first volume of the Herd Book, in tabulated form, was then published. The sale of it brought in £8 5s, at 1s. 6d each copy. Of this sum, 33 was given to the Agricultural Society for prizes for Herd Book stock. Certificates of pedigree, stamped by the Herd Book Society`s seal, were to be charged 1s.; but if the certificates were for England or America, they were charged 2s. 6d. each. The demand, however, for pedigree stock by the AMericans and English, and the increase of prices, awoke the Jerseymen to a sense of the value of pedigree. When the second examination opened, even with a 5s fee, they sent up their cows by hundreds for examination. By the end of 1874, the foundation stock stood at 234 for bulls and 1584 for cows, and the funds amounted to nearly £200. Nothing could be more gratifying to Mr. C.P. Le Cornu.
 The second volume was published in 1874, and the examination of only pedigree stock went on to December 1877. Only 175 bulls were examined and 185 cows and heifers; and the small increase was attributed to the "temptingly high prices" offered for the young animals of qualified stock, and which caused great numbers to be exported. The Herd Book Society was very watchful, too, of any tricks; two of its members, having been suspected, were arraigned before the Committee, judged, found guilty, and fined £2. The third volume was published in 1877, and the fourth is expected to be issued in 1880.
 The effect of the fashion in colour became apparent in 1878; for the Report stated "that quality forms the leading point to which the judges attend; fanciful ideas of colour form no part of the examination, though it is remarkable that an increasing proportion has taken place in the number of (whole) self-coloured bulls and heifers." Seventy certificates had been delivered by the Society - 48 for America and 22 for England.
 Disappointing as the slowly increasing number of pedigree animals may have been out of a stock of ten thousand, the Committee had, however, another pleasant surprice in store; for a petition, signed by sixty-three breeders, was sent in, praying that the foundation stock might be reopened for two more years. This was granted, on condition that the fee for approved was made 10s, instead of 5s. Once more numbers flocked up for examination; and the entries stood on the 30th December, 1879:- foundation stock -bulls 317, cows 2197; pedigree stock - bulls 220, cows 310; and the funds amounted to over £500.
 Such is the history of the Jersey Herd Book, a success most gratifying to Mr. C.P. Le Cornu and to those who have undertaken its onerous and honorary duties. As a registration of meritorious animals it is most excellent. Indeed every recorded animal stands pretty well in the same position as a prize winner; but the book does not show at a glance, as in the English volumes, the extended pedigree. It is, however, possible to trace the pedigree in full from the numbering of the parents down to the foundation stock. Like producing like is the theory upon which it is based. The practical experiences of breeders in England has modified this theory; and the offspring of excellent parents, though it be blemished, or ill nourished  when a calf, has been found to beget excellent produce; such a blemished calf, however, would not be admitted into the Jersey Herd Book. It would be registered; but its entry with a number and qualification in the printed Herd Book would depend on its merits, when brought up for examination after it had calved.
 Although many of the herds have been handed down by father to son, yet few private records appear to have been kept by Island breeders. The pedigree of Coomassie and Lady Isabella, both prize winners, are probably the longest on the Island. Mr. Marett, of St. Saviours, has a good herd; he inherited the stock left by his father, who bought the farm in 1820; and though he occasionally purchases other animals, his rule is to breed from his own stock. He has paid especial attention to richness, quality, and colour. Mr. Le. Gallais` herd at St. Brelade is one of the largest on the Island; it was established about thirty years ago, and a number of prizes have been won both on the Island and in this country by his stock. Capt. Perrée, at St. Marys, has had one tribe for about twenty years; his herd is small, consisting of about half a dozen cows; but they are very handsome, whole coloured, and exceedingly rich. His bulls, too, have been frequent prize winners and much in request; the one in use during the past season having served upwards of three hundred cows. Mr. Arthur`s herd, also in St. Marys parish, is numerous and of long standing; it has produced many noted and prize-winning animals: and there are many other successful exhibitors. An old, and certainly most uniform stock, belongs to Mr. Falla, of St. Johns. This was commenced in 1837 by the purchase of a two-year old heifer for £6 10s. She received 21 points at the Society`s show in 1839, and was of a red fawn and white colour; he refused £15 for her, which was then considered an extraordinary offer. There was at that period difficulty in obtaining good sires, and it was no infrequent thing for him to ride the Island and find a bull out of a cow with a good udder. The herd has grown up principally by the use of his own bulls. It consist of about five cows, one bull, and four or five heifers, on sixteen acres. The animals are very uniform, a reddish fawn grey in colour, and with occasionally a little white. They are short legged, deep bodied and thin shouldered, with beautiful udders, and full of quality. These points Mr. Falla considers have been greatly improved, for the original udders were very narrow and deep, hanging down between the legs. The butter yielded is weighed. In 1875 five cows gave, from March 4 to January 19, 1359 lbs., and the following year the same five cows gave 1398 lbs. from March 1 to February 7. In 1878 three of the same cows gave in 52 days, from March 27 to May 18, 228½ lbs. *[The Jersey pound is a little heavier than the English, in proportion of 104 to 112.],besides what milk was used in the house. Cows calve in January, February, and March. In six years four first prizes have been won by Mr. Falla`s yearling bulls.
 The custom of late years has become very prevalent for breeders to send their cows to prize bulls. It is no uncommon thing for yearling bulls to serve between two and three hundred cows in one season. No old bulls are kept; some say that this is because they become vicious after two and three years old. It is to be believed that another equally cogent reason is, the aolder bulls become useless. Farmer`s Glory 319, the first prize yearling bull at Kilburn, was stated to have positively  served 292 cows before being exhibited last July; and I was assured that about 150 cows had since been put to him before the close of the year. Duke 274, the first prize two-year-old bull, purchased by Lord Chesham at the Kilburn Show, was found to be utterly impotent; and was soon afterwards slaughtered.
 The majority of cows kept on the Island are unnamed, and the bulls also [If animals are named the name continues for generations; one breeder of considerable position and longstanding called all his bulls "Nelson" in succession and his cows "Beauty".] unless they happen to be prize or Herd Book animals. Considering that only about 300 animals were recorded last year, out of 10.000 on the Island, a vast number must still remain nameless. Nearly one fifth of these are annually exported; and, if named at all, perhaps suddenly named the day they are sold. Hence it will be apparent that though, occasionally, pedigree animals or their offspring may be purchased, yet no Island pedigree can really be relied upon as authentic, unless it be signed by the Secretary of the Herd Book and stamped with the Society`s Seal.

   ENGLAND
 In England there have been several accounts of the Jersey breed of cattle published. Of these I shall proceed to remark upon the principal ones; and to add other information which, through private channels, has come to my knowledge.
 Mr. C.P.Le Cornu, in his prize essay *[See Royal Agricultural Society`s Journal, vol xx p. 48 (1859).] asserts that the fact of cattle of this type being brought over to England first from ALderney was the cause through which the name of that small and thinly-populated island got its name attached to the produce of Jersey and Guernsey. A military station has long existed in ALderney; and it is possible that men returning from service there may have been the means of spreading at home the reputation of the Channel Islands breed for peculiarly rich milk and butter. But, be that as it may, the practice of the Messrs. Fowler, in advertising their numerous sales as being of Alderney cattle, popularized the use of the name, and has helped to keep it in existence.
 Mr. Lawrence P. Fowler goes twice a year to Alderney, and takes the surplus stock, which rarely exceeds one hundred head. Guernsey bulls have been used there; and the cattle (which at one time were even smaller than the Jerseys) are now larger, and resemble more the Guernseys, though not in any respect equal to them. Col Le Couteur states that the proprietor of Alderney, about 1780, obtained from Mr. Dumaresq of St. Peters, Jersey, some of his best cows - a statement which goes to show that even in that early day the Jersey was recognized as a superior race.
 At the close of the last century Channel Islands cattle were shipped in small numbers to England, and found their way along the coast and into the southern counties. In 1794 they were so far recognized as a breed of value that an experiment was tried in Kent, between a large home-bred (probably Suffolk) cow eight years old and a small Alderney *[I have retained the use of the word Alderney in most places, in the remainder of this paper; and also in some of the Catalogues of Sales at the end of the volume, as being the term by which animals of the Channel Islands breeds were known in this country, and by which  they are still frequently called.] two years old. The home-bred gave in seven days 35 gallons of milk, which made 10½ lbs. of butter; the Alderney 14 gallons, which made 6½ lbs. *[General View of the Agriculture of the County of Kent, by John Boys, of Betshanger, Farmer,  1794.], or more than double the amount of ounces of butter to the gallon of milk.
 Mr. George Culley, of Northumberland, an eminent agriculturist and authority on cattle, wrote a book in 1807, called "Observations on Live Stock." His quaint remarks are so characteristic of the breed at that period that they are worth quoting. He says:- "The Alderney breed is only met with at the seats of our nobility and gentry, upon account of their giving exceeding rich milk to support the luxury of the tea-table; indeed, if it were not for the sake of method and my believing them a distinct breed, I might have saved the trouble of naming them at all, as I imagine this breed too delicate and tender ever to be much attended to by our British farmers; because they are not able to bear the cold of this island, particularly the northernmost part of it. They are very fine-boned, in general; light red or yellow in colour; and their beef is generally yellow og very high-coloured, though very fine in grain and well-flavoured. They make themselves very fat, and none of them in the least subject to lyer or black flesh. I have seen some very useful cattle, bred from a cross between an Alderney cow and a Shorthorn bull".
 Youatt`s description of them in his well known work i very meagre *[ William Youatt was a professor in the Royal Veterinary College, London; he collected much information on the British breeds of domesticated animals, and wrote the work on "Cattle" published by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, 1834]. He classed them under the head of Foreign breeds of Cattle, and associated them with those of Normandy, remarking that wether from the Continent or the Islands they pass under the common name of Alderneys. They are only found, he continues, in gentlemen`s parks or pleasuregrounds (except in Hampshire); and their real ugliness is passed over on account of the richness of their milk and its great yield of butter; moreover it is thought fashionable to view and Alderney cow or two, grazing at a little distance from the house. Lawrence and Parkinson are both quoted; and he adds, considering its voracious appetite, it yields very little milk. "That milk, however, is of an extraordinarily excellent quality, and gives more butter than can be obtained from the milk of any other cow. Of this no one can doubt who has possessed any Alderney cows. One excellence it must be acknowledged that the Alderneys possess; when they are dried they fatten with a rapidity that could be scarcely thought possible from their gaunt appearance, and their want of almost every grazing point while living. The Duke of Bedford exhibited a French ox at the Smithfield Cattle Show in 1802, whose four quarters weighed 95 stones 3 lbs., and the fat 17 stones 3 lbs., Smithfield weight of 8 lbs. to the stone".
 Of all English herds, that belonging to Lord Braybrooke, at Audley End, is undoubtedly the oldest. The Home Farm there has always been retained by the family; and the best of stock, even to this day, is kept upon it. The Secretary of the Board of Agriculture in 1805 states that, "Lord Braybrooke, at Audley End, has a very fine dairy of polled Yorkshire cows and two  bulls; and that he gives much attention to keep the breed pure and improving by a du selection of calves for stock, and by feeding them for the first two years on the of everything. Mr. Nockolds, the agent, assured me they are excellent milkers, some of them giving in the height of the season three gallons at a meal."
 The farm books at Audley End have been carefully kept since 1772. These throw much light on the early stock of the farm. On the 24th July, 1811, an auction was held of "the whole of the truly valuable dairy of cows and young stock, consisting of fourteen extremely large polled Yorkshire cows, six heifers, two weaning calves, and two bulls of the same breed. The above are parted with on account of the proprietor`s wish to change his stock; and are well worth the attention of gentlemen, farmers, or graziers, being beautifully marked in colour, excellent milkers, and have the greatest tendency to fatten. They have been reared on the premises; and at a very great expense." The prices realized were:- Fourteen cows (£11 to £34 each), £320; six heifers [8gs. to £25 each), £91 8s.; two calves, £16 10s.; two bulls, 345 10s.
 The entries relating to the introduction of the Alderneys read thus:-
 "July 4, 1811. Paid John Shurmer, for 8 Alderney cows and a bull, £172 4s.
 Man`s expenses, bringing beasts from Southampton, £8 16s. Gave Mr. Shurmer`s man, 2s 6d.
 "Sept. 11, 1811. Paid Shurmer for 12 Alderney cows and 3 heifers £257 10s.
 Man`s expenses, bringing beasts from Southampton, £12 3s 6d. Paid Mollony (land-steward at Billingbear), for one Alderney cow and two heifers, £42 7s."
 In 1839 £15 10s was paid to Mr. N. Catlin, in Essex, for an Alderney heifer. In Nov. 1841 £15 15s. to Mr. J.A. Houblon for an Alderney bull and an Alderney calf. And in Nov. 1844, "Alderney prize bull, bought at Southampton show, and conveyance home £33 18s 9d". This bull was purchased from Mr. Massey Stanley; but it cannot now be identified among the Southampton exhibits. The bull is remembered by the men on the estate as "the prize bull." He was a light grey. That the stock was well managed, and the best of its kind, is apparent from the following list of prizes won at the Shows of the Saffron Walden Agricultural Society, which eventually became merged into the Essex County Show; the first important meeting of which under the county name took place in 1858:-
1833, Oct. First prize for Alderney Heifer.
1834, Oct. First prize for Alderney Cow.
 Extra prize for Alderney Heifer.
1835, Oct. Second prize for Bull of any breed.
1837, Oct. First prize for Alderney Cow.
1840, Oct. Second prize for Bull of any breed.
1842, Oct. First prize for Alderney Cow.
1843, Oct. First prize for Alderney Cow.
1844, Oct. First prize for Alderney Cow.
1845, Oct. Extra prize for Alderney Cow.
 First prize for two-year-old Heifer of any breed.
1847, Oct. First Prize for Cow of any breed or age.
 First prize for Alderney Cow in milk
 First prize for two-year-old Heifer of any breed.
 1849, Oct. First prize for Bull of any breed.
 First prize for two-year-old Heifer of any breed.
1851, Oct. First prize for Alderney Cow in milk.
1852, Oct. First prize for Cow in milk, any other breed than  Shorthorn.
 First prize for two-year-old Heifer of any breed.

 No further entries occur, but a not significantly states that "many more prizes would have been obtained if the cow and sheep stock which were qualified for competition had not been kept from several of the shows for fear of the communication of disease between exhibited animals." Feeding as well as dairy properties were studied at Audley End. One entry records "a fat ALderney steer sold in December 1838; weight 86 stones 3 lbs., at 8 s per stone (of eight pounds), £34 9s 9d."
 In January 1852 an Alderney cow was bought for £ 16; and a herd book, carefully recording the dates of birth of the calves, their colours and destination, has been kept since the 15th of July, 1839. The colours are therein given: dark, black and white, and red and white; but, unfortunately, until several years later, the names of the sires of the calves were not given. A bull of Lord Rivers` was used; and it is said that most of the bulls were bred at home,. During the last ten years fresh blood has been introduced into the herd from the stock of Lord Chesham, Mr. W.G.Duncan, Mr. W. Gilbey, and Mr. G. Simpson. The herd at present number about 46 head, most of which are cows and heifers.
 The great distribution of the breed in this country dates back to 1811, when Mr. Michael Fowler, of Little Bushey, became importer of Alderney, Jersey and Guernsey cows. He was born at Kirkleatham in Yorkshire, and came to London when eighteen years of age. For years he was travelling partner in the Great West London Dairy. He bought upp cows all over the country. Little Bushey Farm was the resting place for them before they finally reached the Dairy, which stood near where Hyde Park Square now stands. On one of his journeys Mr. Fowler passed e man driving a little cow to Barnet Fair, unlike anything he had seen before. On inquiry, the drover told him the cow had been sent a present to his master, who did not like her, and that he was to sell her and ask £9. Mr. Fowler, who had just married and was living at Little Bushey, thought the little cow would be a pretty present for his wife, and offered £7 for her. This was declined; and the man took the cow to the fair, where, however, she, from her small size and appearance, became an object of ridicule among the dealers and drovers. So much so was this the case that the man, far from getting his £9, was glad enough to leave the fair and take the cow home again. Oddly enough, Mr. Fowler overtook him returning, and repeated his offer of £7, which the man at once accepted, with five shillings for himself. The cow calved a few weeks afterwards; and produced for seventeen weeks 14¼ lbs. of butter weekly. This extraordinary yield and the fine quality of the butter so surprised Mr. Fowler, that he determined to find out whence she came, and to get more of the breed. He discovered that she came from one of the Channel Islands; and Mr. James Deal, of Southampton, introduced him to Mr. Shurmer, who used to have four or five cows over in the cutters that came from the Islands. These cows he purchased and readily sold in London,  but the cost price being raised he was obliged to go direct to the Islands, and soon established a regular business with this country. He pointed out to the Island breeders the indifferent state in which the cattle were kept, and being acquainted with the improvements made in shorthorns, he urged the Jersey farmers to improve their breeding; and recommended the establishment of Agricultural societies and shows like those held in England. Col. Le Couteur took must interest in this suggestion; and the original scale of points, with Mr. Fowler`s help was drawn up, as has been previously stated. Mr. Fowlwe often acted as judge; he also exhibited some animals at the Highland Society`s show at Glasgow in 1850, which won the Silver Medal; and a Gold Medal and nine hundred francs were obtained at the Paris Exhibition in 1856. The Emperor of the French bought his prize bull there, as well as four cows.
 When the Alderneys (for by such name only were they known) arrived in England, they used to be shod with thin plates of iron; and then they travelled in droves of forty to fifty to the principal towns. Circulars were sent out to the country gentlemen, and advertisements inserted in the local papers. Many cows were sold privately; and when the remainder became small and indifferent, they were finally sold by auction.
 Mr. Fowler`s first agent in Jersey was Mr. P. Le Gresley; he was succeeded by Mr. John Le Bas of St. Heliers (who acted in that capacity for Mr. Fowler and his son Mr. L.P. Fowler for upwards of forty years). Mr. Le Bas`s business was dealing and collecting and shipping the animals. The services rendered (in a large measure  due to Mr. Fowler) and estimation in which he was held by his countrymen, was shown by a testimonial, which was presented to him in 1867, with a silver tea and coffee service, salver, and 160 sovereigns.

 Translation of the Testimonial to Mr. Le Bas.

 "Mr. John Le Bas,
 "It gives me great pleasure, on the present occasion, to be the interpreter to you of the sentiments which animate the agriculturists of Jersey, and to present to you, in their name, this testimonial of their esteem. For upwards of forty-five years you have acted as intermediary between us and the agriculturists of England and other countries, for the exportation and sale of the cattle bred in this Island. In that capacity, by the loyalty of your dealings you have attracted the respect and confidence of all; and our relations with you have always been most agreeable. The exportation of our cattle, as every one knows, is a branch of industry of the greatest importance to the Island.; and is a source of well-being to a great number of our farmers. The probity and good faith with which you have always acted towards those with whom you have dealings have merited their esteem and respect. They found that in you they could repose perfect confidence , and that the prices they obtained were the result of a just and honourable valuation. It is this trait in your character which has struck us all, and which explains the spontaneous sentiment which has now brought us together to present you with the tribute of our approbation. Kindly receive at our hans this testimonial, with a purse of one hundred and sixty sovereigns; and may you yet  live many years surrounded by the esteem and respect which you have so legitimately acquired.
      "John Picot, Secretary."
"Jersey, this 7th day of September 1867"
A list follows of the 867 names of those who contributed

 He died in March 1874, in his seventy-third year, and was succeeded by his son, Mr. J.F.G. Le Bas, and his grandson, Mr. Eugene J. Arnold, who were in partnership till 1877, when Mr. Le Bas, owing to ill health, retired. Mr. Arnold had helped in the business some time before his grandfather`s death. The following table shows the number of animals shipped by the firm up to 1876, and by Mr. E.J. Arnold afterwards, to England, America, New Zealand, Australia, and France:-

Year  Cows  Bulls  Total
1873.......  1179 56   1235
1874.......   725 24    749
1875.......   918 49    967
1876.......  1113 44   1157
1877.......  1025 50   1075
1878.......  1199 61   1260
1879.......   830 37    867

 Mr. Michael Fowler had four sons, three of whom took to the business -Edward Philip Parsons Fowler, of Southampton; Lawrence Parsons Fowler, of Little Bushey Farm; and Percival Henry Fowler, of Watford. Mr. Edward P.P. Fowler helped his father when a boy; he was a good hand at plating the cows and usually travelled with them to London and through the country. In course of time he started business on his own account; and for twenty-eight years resided in Jersey, leaving the island about ten years since to reside in SOuthampton. Of the three brothers he does the largest business, and makes about forty passages a year. The breed he considers has greatly improved; whilst prices have almost doubled during the forty years he has been in the trade. The horns and head of the animals in particular have become neater, and the form of the udder is greatly altered for the better.
 The greatest number ever taken over by him was 128, on board a small boat called the "Calpe"; and the "Atalanta" is said, on one occasion, to have brought over 137. Once, when trade was very good, 71 head were sold at Southampton fair. On another occasion, in the days before steamboats came into use, he had a number of cows and several casks of cider on board a sailing ship. The vessel was thirteen days out, and, running short of water, the captain tapped the cider casks. So much did the cows approve of the cider, that they persistently refused to drink water several days after landing.
 When a young man, Mr. E.P.P. Fowler was wrecked off Yarmouth; and again, in 1873, off the coast of France, when the "Germany" was lost. He had then on board 36 cows, 4 rams, 22 dogs, and poultry of all kinds for America. The vessel calling for French emigrants, fell into the hands of a bad pilot, and was wrecked near the Gironde; Mr. Fowler got squeezed between the ship and the life-boat; and was picked up insensible and taken on to Lisbon. His cargo, valued at about £1600, was entirely lost; indeed, this was the case with everything save  his pipe and the clothes he was wrecked in. A scar on his leg will bear testimony to the occurrence to the end of his days.
 To America Mr. E.P.P. Fowler has made many passages. He has sold  cows in New Orleans (where for fifteen years there was a good trade), Philadelphia, Mobile, Baltimore, Cincinnati, Boston, and New York. There is scarcely a large or county town in England which he has not visited, and in which he has not sold cattle. Mr. Duncan in Buckinghampshire bought 113 cows from him. The Rev. John Hill and Mr. Kenyon were good buyers for many years in Shropshire. A great many cattle were sold about Brigg in Lincolnshire; whilst Banbury, Oxford, Birmingham, Derby, Peterborough, Bishops Stortford, and Colchester have all proved excellent centres. The south of Scotland, about Lauder sale for them in all the large towns in Ireland, particularly Dublin and Belfast.
 Her Majesty, at Osborne , and the Duke of Richmond, at Goodwood, have been supplied for many years; and Sit Tatton Sykes in Yorkshire, Sir John Tyrell in Essex, and Sir Richard Bulkeley in Wales, were also old customers. Sir Richard had a great taste for the breed; and three of his best cows were painted by a celebrated artist. This pictures was afterwards given to Mr. Fowler. It represents three beautiful animals, similarly marked, but of different colours. One is a black and white; another a brownish red and white; and the third a grey and white with a darkish face. The white marks are a star on the forehead, a large patch over the top of the shoulders, another on the loin and under the belly, with white hind legs. The black and white and the grey cows have the white rim round the muzzle, but the brown one has not. These colours corroborate an old story on the Island, that no calf was considered good without the star, the white shoulders, loin, and belly.
 Mr. Lawrence P. Fowler has retained most of his father`s old customers, and has been appointed a judge in Guernsey. He supplies the Royal Dairy at Windsor, and many other large establishments. The Duke of Atol`s and the Earl of Rosslyn`s herds in Scotland were also kept up by his importations. About forty animals are sent annually to Edinburgh, where there is a ready sale for him. Several have gone to Hamburg and the Continent, and large shipments were sent to Canada in 1868. It has been a frequent occurrence for families going out to Australia to take a cow on board with them.
 Mr. Percival H. Fowler has sent a good many to America and Canada, as well as to different parts of England; and is supplied in Jersey by Mr. F. Le Brocq, of St. Peters. I have gone thus fully into the business of the Messrs. Fowler, inasmuch as it was through them that the Islands Cattle have spread of late years throughout the United Kingdom.
 There are but few other dealers. Mr. H.J. Cornish, of Thornford Sherborne, Sorsetshire, is the largest. His grandfather commenced the business about 1836; and his father, ten years later, settled and farmed in St. Saviours, sending over a good number of cattle, which went chiefly into the counties of Dorset, Somerset, Vilts, Gloucester, and Devon; several, too, have been sent to Waterford in Ireland.
 The verdict of these men is that some of the Jerseymen (as in all other countries) are not quite trustworthy. The dealers prefer buying in-calf-heifers, as dry in-calf cows have  so often turned out with defective udders. The Jersey Herd Book caused an inquiry and demand for pedigree stock. When animals were sold, in many instances they were named, as well as their sires and dams, off hand. No records of these sales and names were kept, and a short time afterwards the transaction was forgotten.
 On the other hand, it is right to put on record, that the Jerseymen consider that the dealers (whom the Americans do not consider reliable) have had a very fine trade, and that they make a great deal more money of the stock than they pay for them. But in this part of the case, it should not be forgotten that the dealers take all the risk of shipping, travelling, and selling the animals in this country; and that it is a question whether the breed would ever have become so numerous and so widely known as it is at the present time, had it not been for the perseverance, the judgment, and the labour that these men have applied to their business.
 Mr. Philip Dauncey, of Horwood, may justly claim to be the father of Jersey breeders in England. Although now in his eighty-fifth year, his memory is still clear, and his zeal and activity for the improvement of the breed and for developing its production of butter are as great as ever. His private herd book is full of quaint and instructive remarks, exceedingly interesting to those engaged in breeding Jerseys. With a great taste for rural pursuits, a keen sportsman, and a rare lover of a good horse, he went to reside at Swanbourne in 1821. He kept there a Suffolk cow, which gave 21 quarts of milk; and one day, riding near Watford, he saw a "little lemon fawn cow with white round her nose," which took his fancy. This cow he afterwards bought from Mr. Fowler and called by the name of "Pug". She gave 11 quarts of milk; yet it was found that she made 10½ lbs. of butter against 10¼ lbs. from the Suffolk; both of which had calved in August. His choice of a dairy breed was at once made. Four years later he went to live at Horwood and immediately bought Alderney cows from Mr. Fowler and friends in the district. This was the beginning of a herd; which, forty-two years later, attracted noblemen and gentlemen from all parts to witness its dispersion - an event which was considered at its time one of the greatest achievements of a breeder`s skill which had ever occurred in England.
 A few particulars regarding the introduction of some of the other cows may be useful. Brunette, the ancestress of Mr. Gilbey`s Ban, which many considered the best cow at the sale, was a great favourite and her blood permeated the whole herd. Mr. Dauncey heard of her dam as a wonderful cow, which had made seventeen pounds of butter in one week: He rode thirty miles to see her. He found her an old ugly cow of eleven years, a patchy red and white, with one hip down, cock-horned, three-teated, and barren. He inquired of her owner, Mr. Wight, of Blakesley, if the story of her yield of butter was correct. "I can answer for sixteen pounds," said he, "but when I was away my servants paid me for seventeen." Twenty-five guineas was asked for this cow," old, three-teated, and barren;" and Mr. Dauncey declined to buy her.Some time afterwards, while hunting with the Duke of Grafton, he heard that a cow belonging to the Rev. Mr. Clarke, at Cold Higham, was an extraordinary butter maker; and on pulling up at the farm to look at her, Mr. Dauncey at once identified his old acquaintance Mr. Wight`s cow. Knowing of  Welch 930, a very good young bull, which he had bred, hard by, he offered Mr. Clarke, as she was then fresh calved, £3 for her next calf if he would send the cow to his bull. The produce was Brunette; she was calved in March 1833, and turned out a beaturiful and most useful cow, producing altogether fourteen calves. After breeding her last calf, on the 15th April, 1850, she went to the brook to drink, and, being old and weakly, another cow pushed her over; her body dammed up the little stream, which soon flowed over her head and drowned her. Brunette milked well to the last.
 Violet was another celebrated cow; she came from Col. Le Couteur`s herd in May 1845; and Negress, another favourite, was black, and given to Mr. Dauncey, when a calf, by Col. Pigott, who imported her dam when in calf to an Island prize bull. The dam of the broken-coloured cow Whaddon, Mr. Dauncey considered an Alderney and not a Jersey; she was sent to Mr. Selby Lowndes`s father by Mr. Le Masurier as something choice. Pope 652 was Mr. Dauncey`s first bull, and came in 1826 from Mr. Michael Fowler, from whom another Island bull, Fowler 335, was obtained thirty years later. Lethe and Wasp were two of his choicest cows. ALthough disinclined to exhibit, yet Mr. Dauncey showed these, as well as another cow, two heifers, and a bull, when the Royal show was held at Windsor. The judges, however, only commended Lethe and one of the heifers, considering them too large for the breed. Their portraits, as well as a number of others then forming the herd, exist to show what a beautiful stock it then was. But the sweets of revenge came in 1870, when Mr. Pulley exhibited, at the Royal show at Oxford, Vixen, which hed had bought at the Horwood sale, and won the first prize with her.
 The herd at Horwood, as a rule, was kept up to fifty cows, which generally yielded, in butter alone, "a thousand a year". The butter always went to London, and for many years Her Majesty`s table was supplied with it. Careful measurement has often shown fourteen pounds weekly from one cow, indeed in one instance sixteen pounds was obtained. The greatest yield was the first week in June 1867, when the entire herd of fifty cows made 10½ lbs. each cow and 9½ lbs. over. The average produce the same year from the whole herd, was "within the slightest fraction of 7 lbs. per head per week, dry or milking." Twentytwo quarts was the highest record from any one cow in one day; this was accredited to Elk. Another calculation was that it required an acre and a half of pasture for each cow, and nearly the same area of meadow to produce hay for winter feeding. Mr. Dauncey was frequently tempted to sell; but so careful was he of his breed that he would never part with a cow in calf, unless he had the calf back, and it was a very rare occasion that he allowed a bull to be sold. Occasionally he would give one away to a friend. Mr. Courtauld, in Essex, brought some cattle prior to the sale, and successfully exhibited them at the Essex show. The Germans took quite a fancy to his cattle some years ago; and several were purchased to go to the continent. One bull went to Tasmania; and an Australian laid the foundation of a herd in Melbourne by purchasing nine heifers and a bull calf.
 At last increasing years, declining health, and domestic bereavement induced Mr. Dauncey to offer the entire herd by auction. So strong, however, was his love for his cows that,  feeling better, he withdrew the sale when announced for the spring. Autumn`s falling leaf again shook his resolution; and on  the 24th October, 1867, the herd was actually sold.
 An immense company assembled to witness the dispersion of "this farrenowned herd of Channel Island cattle," which was held to be "unrivalled for their symmetry, colour and milking properties." An eye-witness graphically described them: *[See "Mark Lane Express", Oct. 28, 1867] Nothing but greys, as they are termed, have been admissible at Horwood; although with certain shades, from the light-reddish tint to the duns, fawns, smoke-coloured with black markings, black tongues, and tan muzzles. The produce of whole-coloured Jersey bulls pretty generally take after their sires in this respect; while the preference for a grey herd has nothing further to recommend it than a fancy. The lemon and white and other parti-coloured cows from the Channel Islands are quite as good milkerss, and, if any thing, they show more style and breeding than their quakercoated sisters. Mr. Dauncey, however, has been a breeder rather than a buyer; in which way he has acquired more size and constitution; but, together with the higher development of these qualities, an unmistakable coarseness is apparent. In going through the herd, the first thing that struck the visitor was their fine size and level looks. There were but few of those ragged razor-backed bags of bones, so often supposed to typify good milkers; but most of the cows carried some flesh, with thick kindly coats, and other such attributes of the hardy healthy animal. Imposing as the Horwood Alderneys looked in their standings, they improved immensely upon the eye when led into the ring. What with their free graceful carriage and kindly placid manners, they bore about them the very impress of highly-bred but not over-bred animals. Long and low, level bu no fat, their symmetry and condition were equally admirable. No wonder that the squire is loth to part with them, now that he has fashioned them, as it were, all of a family - for to sketch one is to portray the whole herd. The same darkpointing of the same sober garments is the very livery of the tribe; set off by the gamely tanned muzzle, the blood-like necks, and light deerlike limbs and movements. When the coarseness does crop up, we note it in a thick, ungainly, and often gaudy horn, or yet more in the harsh awkward setting-on the tail."
 The herd was scattered far and wide -into Berks, Hertfordshire, Northamptonshire, Essex, Surrey, Wilts, Hereford, Stafford, and Yorkshire. Five Dukes had purchased at one time or another. A misfortune, however, befell the Duke of Northumberland`s lot, at Sion House. The cows were tethered as on the Island, but they soon got loose and broke their necks over a hawhaw; while the bull strayed into the hot-houses, and disported himself by breaking the glass.
 Mr. Dauncey still keeps some cows; and with the materials on the farm, and Colonel 189, a fine bull from Sir R.T. Gilpin, if years be spared him, his old hand not having lost its cunning, he may yet raise another herd from the remnants that were left.
 Most of the herds in the county take their rise from Horwood. The herd at Whaddon is, however, of anterior date to that at Horwood. Unfortunately no records have been kept of it; and even the bulls in use during the season 1879 were unnamed. In the "Agriculture of Bucks`"*[By the Rev. St. John Priest,  Secretary to the Norfolk Agricultural Society, 1810] it is stated that "the Rev. Mr. Rush, of Stone, had two Alderney cows (one a calf of the other), which for a considerable part of the year gave eleven pounds of butter each per week. Mr. W. Lowndes of Whaddon, has one or two Suffolk cows, and keeps Alderney cow as well; and it is allowed that he gets more and better butter from them, than his neighbours do from the Holderness." The present herd consists of about twenty cows, fawn and grey in colour, very even, short-legged, deep-bodied, handsome animals; showing the characteristics of the true-bred English Jersey. Occasionally an imported bull is used; and then home-bred ones follow; and they are frequently kept till seven years old. A large number of bulls have been distributed throughout the country from this herd. The stud of hunters, the immense pack of hounds, the aviary of canaries, golden pheasants, peafowl, and other varieties of the feathered tribe, all show that Whaddon is a great and quiet place for breeding, and that what it breeds is true-bred.
 Col. Sir R.T. Gilpin`s herd at Hockliffe is smaller, and was originally obtained , in 1845, from Mar. Dauncey; some animals were also bought from Sir John M. Burgoyne and other stocks, as well as from the Fowlers. It has, however, been kept pretty much to Mr. Dauncey`s blood through Mr. Bassett`s stock and animals bred from the Horwood herd.
 The late Mr. W.G. Duncan`s herd at Bradwell ranked next to that at Horwood; it had been bred upon the farm since 1849, from imported cows. Bulls were also imported or bred from imported cows; Gipsy, the dam of one of them, yielded 17 lbs. of butter for several weeks after calving, and gave 21 quarts of milk a day. Medora, a very favourite cow with a fine udder, gave 20 quarts daily for a long time after calving. The Dauncey blood was introduced after the sale, as well as a strain from Whaddon. Like Horwood, the herd was celebrated for its extraordinary yields of butter. In twenty-two years an average of 29 cows realized, from udder produce alone £14.722, or about an annual profit of £23 for each cow. Colour was studied, and the cows were generally of a uniform grey fawn with black points; should a little white occasionally crop out, the animals were usually drafted, unless they showed extraordinary dairy properties. In size they were a little smaller than those at Horwood, and, except one tribe with rather cocked horns, showed little coarseness. Mr. Duncan was of opinion that after the imported animals were acclimatized they became very hardy, and good handlers, feeding quickly and heavily when dry. The herd was sold April 24, 1873; it attracted a large company, and the result was very gratifying, both to the owner and the public. It averaged £40 5s. 2d. for 44 head, 21 of which were cows.
 Lord Chesham succeeded to Latimer in 1850. Alderneys and a mixed breed of dairy cattle were then kept there, but on his lordship`s accession the mixed breeds were sold and replaced by whole-coloured Jerseys. Mr. Duncan sent over a bull which was called The Bull; as on other large estates, no record of the breeding of the herd was kept until later years, when fresh animals were purchased; indeed, whenever any herd of long standing and importance has been dispersed, a specimen or two of it has generally been purchased for Latimer. Some animals have also been imported. It is a large, well known herd; and its blood has been much spread about the country by draft sales  and young bulls. Mr. Coleman`s herd at Stoke Park, which was mainly dispersed in 1879, had been bred from Mr. Dauncey`s, Mr. Duncan`s, and Mr. Simpson`s stocks. The cows generally were of large frame, principally silver greys, and many of them great milkers.
 The herd at Stewkley Grange is also another old herd i Buckinghamshire. It was commenced by Mr. Palmer about 1845, by purchases from Mr. M. Fowler and from neighbouring stocks. Bulls from these cows were used till 1854, when a bull was bought of Mr. Selby Lowndes; and a son of this bull and grandsons were afterwards used. In 1869 a bull of Dauncey blood came from the Rev. Dr. Booth; some cows were sent to the sires at Whaddon, and bulls from Mr. Duncan`s, r. Gilbey`s, and Mr. Simpson`s herds followed. On the death of Mr. Palmer in January 1874, the herd passed into possession of his widow, Mrs. C.M. Palmer, who, with aid of her sons, still keeps up its high character. The Rev. Dr. Booth, at Stone, and Mr. Acton Tindal, at Aylesbury, both kept good herds as far back as 1860. They were bred from Mr. Dauncey`s stock. Dr. Booth had one celebrated cow called Dauncey, that gave 26 quarts daily. Mr. F. Bassett`s herd near Leighton is of more recent date; indeed it took its rise at the Horwood sale, and has been recruited from the leading stocks of the day. The Duke of Grafton`s herd at Wakefield Lodge, the Duke of Bedford`s at Woburn, and that belonging to the Righ Hon. J.G. Hubbard at Addington are all the growth of the last twenty years, and were increased from the Horwood sale. For Woburn were purchased some of the best of Mr. Gilbey`s stock; and at the close of the year 1879 it numbered 114 head, 30 of which were cows. As at Latimer, Hallingbury, and elsewhere, great value is attached to Jersey beef at Woburn. Steers are made and fed at an early age; they come quickly to maturity, and produce most excellent beef of fine colour and flavour.
 Lord Camoys has a beautiful herd at Stonor which has been entirely bred from stock imported by Messrs. Fowler during the last thirty years: it has not been exhibited, nor has any record been kept, the dairy having been the chief aim, and an assurance that the bulls used were thoroughbred. One bull bred by Mr. G.A. Fuller was used here. Mr. Middleton`s herd at Cutteslowe, and Mr. Salter`s at Egrove, both near Oxford, were commenced by purchases of imported animals from Mr. E.P. Fowler in 1868. Mr. Middleton keeps about 25 cows, and first used Mr. Dauncey`s bull Dolphin 242, which made a great impression on the stock; his sons from imported cows have since been used.
 The late Mr. Edward Marjoribanks succeeded to the herd of Mr. Stewart Marjoribanks at Bushey Grove, who kept imported Alderneys for many years, and used Messrs. Fowler`s bulls at Bushey. Landscape, the highest priced cow, 100 gs., at the Horwood sale, came here, and others from Mr. Duncan. A silvergrey bull, called Lothair 509, was bought of Mr. Lowndes, and is reported to have been particularly thick-fleshed and handsome; he was sold to a butcher in Watford market for £44. Attention was paid here more to feeding than to the dairy. A steer is said to have been sold by auction, when twenty months old, for £37 10s. The herd of 45 head was sold in September 1874, and averaged £35 6s 1d. The herd at Charleywood, near Watford, belonging to Mr. Barnes, has been kept up for several years, mostly from imported animals, to which Lord Chesham`s  bulls have been used. It has been successfully exhibited at the Royal and other shows.
 Lord Dacre has also an old herd at The Hoo, Welwyn, bred during the last twenty years from imported stock; occasionally a bull from Audley End or other old established herds has been used. The herd at Luton Hoo is of later date, and also descended from imported animals.
 No herd has, however, been more distinguished or realized higher prices than that belonging to Mr. Walter Gilbey. Its rise occurred in a singular manner. Owing to delicate health he was advised to take new milk. Some Alderneys were bought by that capital judge, the late Mr. Arthur Nockolds, from the Wendon Hall herd, and kept in London; on removing into Essex, a herd was established for the use of the family. It is as well to mention here, that one of the cheapest commodities in a town house, where a large family resides, is a dairy cow. Mr. Gilbey believes good new milk to be not only a luxury, but indispensable to the health of children. In establishing the herd at Hargrave Park, any cows showing inferior dairy properties, or not approaching his standard of excellence, were sold or given away; and he became an excellent customer for very choice animals; indeed only the best were good enough. Selections were specially made by Mr. Nockolds for him at the shows on the Island. At Mr. Dauncey`s and Mr. Duncan`s sales he was a purchaser; and bulls from these stocks, as well as imported animals, were used.A careful record of the dairy produce was kept, and the animals were successfully exhibited at the Essex county shows; but as the inferior sums awarded in prizes attracted but few animals, Mr. Gilbey supplemented the prizelist by special donations to the Channel Island classes. This led to more numerous exhibits; and the show gradually became celebrated for the excellence of this breed of cattle. His animals were afterwards sent to the Royal and other shows; and rarely returned home without a prize or commendation. The stock becoming very numerous, drafts were sent into Bishops Stortford and sold by auction; and these draft animals, which were in themselves of a high character, became spread about the district and produced excellent stock. Names of three letters were chosen for cows; and their produce took this name with the addition of a second and third syllable as Fan, Fancy, Fanciful.
 Annual draft sales were afterwards held at Hargrave Park; the sale in May 1874 was largely attended; seventeen yearling heifers selling for over fifty guineas each. In the following December the herd was reluctantly dispersed, in consequence of the termination of the lease and death of the owner of the estate. Extraordinary prices were obtained. The Duke of Bedford gave 255 gs. for a three-years old cow, and an in-calf heifer brought the same sum. Six cows realized 1010 gs., and the eighteen averaged £90 16s 6d. The heifers and calves also sold very high; the herd of fifty averaging £64 16s 0d. The celebrated cow Milkmaid was bought by Mr. C.L. Sharpless for Philadelphia, U.S.A., for 155gs. Her best yield of milk in AMerica has since been 22½ quarts *[It is doubtful if this is the English imperial quart of 40 fluid ounces; the quantity of butter obtained indicates that it is not.] per day, and 11 lbs. 3 ozs. of butter per week. This was the second occasion when Americans bought publicly; some animals having been previously  purchased at Mr. Duncan`s sale for Mr. P. Le Clair, of Vermont. Hitherto they had generally purchased exhibited animals at the Royal and other shows.
 Although Mr. Gilbey`s herd was in existence several years, yet that belonging to Mr. J. Archer Houblon, of Great Hallingbury, was established many years before. It was commenced as far back as 1831, with stock from Lord Braybrooke`s herd at Audley End and Lady Canning`s at Hallingbury Place. Many animals were also bought from Messrs Fowler, and occasionally Mr. Gilbey`s bulls were used.
 The Earl of Rosslyn`s herd was taken to Easton Lodge in 1866; it was originally started by his lordship`s father, about 1840, at Hampton Court, with imported animals, and very carefully kept. In 1850 it was removed to Dysart House, Fifeshire, where it numbered about twenty head; but, the climate being severe, the herd got low. When Lord Rosslyn succeeded, he found seven or eight cows, which he brought down into Essex, and imported a young bull. There the herd considerably increased, and has become one of the most beautiful in the county. Mr. Gilbey`s stock was successfully introduced with a view to retain the whole colours as well as the great dairy properties.
 The herd at Wendon Hall is also of long standing, having been in the Cornwell family for about forty years. Animals were bought in the neighbourhood of Bishops Stortford, and the stock has been improved and kept up by the use of Lord Braybrooke`s bulls. Mr. W. Cornwell also had a herd at Bishops Stortford; it was commenced by his father and crossed with Mr. Gilbey`s stock. Mr. T.N. Miller, in the same neighbourhood, has bred and successfully exhibited animals at the Royal and County shows. The Rev. John Collin, of Rickling, imported two cows in 1851, and used Mr. Gilbey`s bulls. Mr. W.J. Beadel`s herd at Springfield Lyons was bred from the stocks belonging to Mr. W. Gilbey, Mr. G. Simpson, and other breeders; it was successfully shown at the Essex and Hertfordshire shows, and when dispersed in 1877 averaged £38 18s for 37 head. But the county of Essex has long been a stronghold for the ALderney cow. As previously shown, Mr. Courtauld bought some animals privately form Mr. Dauncey. Mr. Badham, Mr. Vaizey, and others bred from imported stock; and that well known agriculturalist, the late Mr. Fisher Hobbs, was a great admirer of the breed. In 1863 he wrote a letter, which was read by Mr. Horn before the Eye Farmers`Club, as follows:-"I send you a correct account of the produce of two Alderney cows which I kept at my own residence, Boxted Lodge in 1861. I had no other cows there during that time. You will observe that the produce for these two cows was kept separate from the period of their calving until the 12th of July. After that time the cream was mixed. The total produce of these two cows in thirty-four weeks was 800 lbs., besides what cream was used in my house."
 From Essex the breed crept into Suffolk. The Rev. Morton Shaw at Rougham, has taken great interest in it, for more than twentyfive years, owning and breeding many fine animals; and Col. Wilson, at Stowlangtoft, has been a buyer at the most important sales, using principally the Dauncey blood as sires. In Norfolk, Mr E. Birkbeck has kept a herd at Horstead since 1868; and previously for seven years in Surrey. This has been bred from Mr. Fuller`s and Mr. Gurneu`s stocks, and bulls were  used from the Duke of Richmond`s and Mr. Selby Lowndes` herds, as well as imported animals from Messrs. Fowler. The late Rev. J.N. Micklethwait also had a choice herd near Norwich. At the Norfolk fat stock show in 1877 much talk was occasioned by the great merit of an Alderney steer* [This steer was bred by Mr. Horatio Wortley of Frettenham, and sold to Mr. W. Gray of Felthorpe to be killed; he was by a bull of Mr. Birkbeck`s from an imported cow. Mr. Wortley also sold in 1879, a young steer eighteen months old, of his own breeding, for £25] which was sold to be killed for £42 at the age of two years and eleven months; it killed well, and weighed 72 stones of 14lbs.
 Into Yorkshire, the great home of the Shorthorn, many animals have been taken, but very few kept pure. Major Thursby bought several in Jersey; and took them to the neighbourhood of Pontefract, where they were bred for several years. In 1869 he wrote to the Rev. Dr. Booth of Stone, that he preferred Mr. Dauncey`s breed, crossed by stock bred in Jersey, as they then showed more quality and were not so coarse. The late Mr. Brown also kept a herd at Rossington, which has since been continued by Mr. R.J. Streatfeild. It was added to from Mr. Gilbey`s and other sales. Even over the border Sir John Marjoribanks has kept a herd at Lees, near Coldstream, since 1862; and they may be found in many a homestead at the Lothians.
 Around Manchester they have also had a home. Sir Thomas de Trafford, exhibited a bull at the Royal Show at Manchester, in 1869. Mr. Pilling also took some imported animals, as well as some of Mr. Gurney`s stock, into Cheshire, where the Rev. W.D. Fox kept a herd for upwards of thirty years. Mr. C.H. Bakewell has long kept a small select herd at Quarndon, Derby. In Shropshire, Mr. Kenyon, at Pradoe, has one of the oldest established herds in the country, the farm-book showing dates of birth of Alderney cows since 1816. Col. Wilson`s bulls from Stowlangtoft in Suffolk were recently used here. The Rev. J. Hill`s herd at Hawkstone, Shrewsbury, has been bred pure, chiefly from imported stock, since 1826. Some animals have also been kept pure by the Rev. C.W. Grove, in Gloucestershire; and Col. Barrows at Hagley, and Mr. H.P. Parkes at Belbroughton, have each kept pure herds in Worcestershire since 1870.
 In Dorsetshire, Mr. G.D. Wingfield Digby`s herd is one of the oldest and most successful in the county, having been exhibited for many years; it was comenced over twenty years ago with importations made by Messrs Fowler and Cornish. About thirty cows and two bulls are kept ; the bulls are usually imported animals, and changed every two or three years. In the south of Devon, Lord Poltimore, Mr. Scratton, and a few others are keeping the breed pure.
 South of the Thames they have existed from the beginning of the century. Mr. John Middleton of Lambeth, wrote as far back as 1807, "that in the pleasure grounds of gentlemen, the Suffolk, ALderney, Jersey, Guernsey, Welsh, and Scotch breeds are most to be met with. The Shorthorn breed are almost the only sort kept by cow-keepers for the produce of milk for sale." Mr. Thomas Hepburn has kept a numerous herd at Clapham Common since 1856; and bred from both imported stock and English herds, which he considers are distinct in character except as to quality and quantity of milk. He is also of opinion that the English climate makes them more robust and larger in frame; that for the park, where large herds are kept,  and the males grazed for the butcher, the Englsih-bred bull is the most useful; but the suburban residence is not complete without a couple of Jersey cows, where , for the richness of their milk and their great docility and beauty, they are so much admired, and for this supply importations from the Island must continue.
 Mr. Fuller`s herd near Dorking is, however, one of the oldest in Surrey. He originally got some animals from Mr. Slade at Eltham; and in 1848, while hunting in Buckinghamshire, he so much admired Mr. Dauncey`s beautiful stock, that he bought a couple of heifers, and used bulls from Mr. Duncan, as well as his homebred ones, and occasionally imported bulls. In 1865 the herd was sold without any particulars, at very ssatisfactory prices, and was the means of starting and improving other good herds. Mr. Gisbey`s celebrated cow Milkmaid, whose dam Grasshopper lived until twenty years old, was bred by Mr. Fuller, who in the course of another year began again to gather a herd together; it now consists of about twenty cows, fawns and greys, of great uniformity and character. Mr. Gurney`s herd near Reigate, like Mr. A.O. Wilkinson`s at Redhill, bred for whole colors, was commenced in 1855, when he went to reside at Nutwood. His father kept a herd in Essex about fifty years ago. He was a purchaser at Mr. Dauncey`s sale; and bought many animals from Mr. Fowler and from neighbours in the district. Home-bred bulls have been used; and cows sent over to Mr. Simpson`s celebrated herd at Wray Park; which, like that of Mr. Gilbey, has been gradually selected whenever an opportnity offered of purchasing first class animals. The best of Mr. Fowler`s importations have also gone to him; and the bulls have been principally selected from the best breeders in Jersey, or bred at home. Of late years this herd has been eminently successful at the Royal and principal shows in the kingdom, and many animals have been sold at high prices, some going to America and Australia. Great attention is paid to the yield of milk at Wray Park; and the following table shows the produce of one of the best cows, Luna, calved February 20, 1874; she produced her first calf January 1st, 1876, and yielded that month 701 lbs- *[Ten pounds weight of milk may be taken as equal to 4 quarts or one gallon imperial measure, and one pound of butter can ordinarily be made from about 15 lbs. of milk; but this very much depends upon the food of the animal and richness of its milk.]; her second calf was born on the 1st of April 1877, it sucked its dam several days, the milk was weighed on the 10th, from which time to February 1878 she yielded milk as follows:
Luna`s first calf calved         Luna`s second calf calved           January 1, 1876                      April 1, 1877
                          Lbs                              Lbs
January 8th to 31st. 1876 701  April 10th to 30th 1877     681
February................  901  May......................  1341
March...................  876  June...................... 1352
April...................  831  July...................... 1176
May.....................  822  August.................... 1052
June....................  810  September.................  785
July....................  749  October...................  749
August..................  656  November..................  768
September...............  662  December..................  547
October.................  597  January 1878..............  502
 November................  462  February..................  249
December................  471                             9202
February, dry on the 1oth  98
                         8984 lbs.

 In Sussex, the Duke of Richmond has long had a herd at Goodwood, bred from imported stock. The Earl of Egmont at Cowdray Park, imported five heifers and a bull from Jersey in 1847; and a first prize was won with this stock at the Royal show at Windsor 1851. Bulls were imported from the Island every fourth year; and i 1874 another importation of eight heifers was made.The herd is both uniform and numerous. Col Cavendish also kept a herd at West Stoke, near Chichester, since 1845, breeding chiefly from imported bulls. One of the most noted herds in Sussex was that belonging to the late Mr. Dumbrell [Coleman: Dumbrill] at Ditchling. He kept a very large stock for twenty years near Brighton, and imported most of his animals, bulls as well as cows, from Jersey, which breed he considered gained the most strength, size, and constitution without losing its characteristics for the dairy, and was better suited to our climate. He adopted the Island method of tethering the cows, and so successful was his management that he was solicited to read a paper on the subject before the London Farmers`Club in 1862. At the Newcastle Royal show his animals were very successfully exhibited.
 The breed abounds in Hampshire; but little record has been kept of their breeding. The late Mr. Duff, at Town Hill, bred from imported stock; Mr. Cadus succeeded to this country. Sir A.K. Macdonald`s herd at Woolmer, and Mrs. Malcolm`s at Beechwood, Mr. C.F. Wilson`s at Tatchbury Manor, and Mr. C.B. Dixon`s at Shirley Warren, are also of high standing and mostly bred from imported animals. Several prizes were won at the Hants and Berks show, and the stock was widely dispersed when sold in 1877.
 The value of this breed for dairy produce seems to have been known on the Isle of Wight from the earliest periods. The Rev. Mr. Warner wrote the Agricultural Survey of the Island in 1794, and remarked that "the cows are mostly of the Alderney breed, though mixed with English sorts. They are extremely profitable, some of them giving during part of the summer 10 lbs. of butter per week. It is a matter of surprise that this breed is not more generally known in other parts of the kingdom than appears to be the case. The original price of a good Alderney cow, at the place where she is imported, is seldom more than 8 guineas; she is equally hardy with our own breed, consumes less provender, and certainly yields as rich milk, the cream of which gives a richness to butter not observable in what is made from the English cow". Her Majesty`s herd at Osborne has been supplied by Mr. Fowler; bulls have been imported and also used from Col. Cavendish`s and Mr. Fuller`s herds. Mr. Pittis had for some years a herd near Newport; Mr. J.R. Fisk also keeps a herd at Brighstone, to which the Town Hill stock has been used; and Mr. Hammick`s at Mirables is bred entirely from animals specially selected on the Island. Messrs Arnold`s of West Meon, was originally bred by their father in the Isle of Weight more than half a century ago; and he took great delight in them. In 1835 he removed to West Meon in Hampshire, where the best of the herd was taken. It has there  been kept pure ever since by the use of imported bulls, and occasionally an exchange with Messrs. Mortimer, whose herd dates back to imported stock since 1841. Messrs. Arnold keep about ten cows, which are very rich, of good quality and symmetry, and exceedingly uniform.
 The reports of the Judges at the Shows of the Royal Agricultural Society of England commenced in 1862. They differ greatly from those published by the Jersey Society; and refer more to the appearance of the animals exhibited, than to principles, for the guidance of breeders. They are to be found in the Journals of the Society. It was suggested by the Judges in 1865 to divide the Jerseys and Guernseys into separate classes. This suggestion was repeated in 1869 and 1870, and after the classes were separated in 1871, the work of judging was much facilitated. In 1875 the judges emphatically pointed out that every encouragement should be given to increase and, if possible, to improve the produce of the Jersey and Guernsey cattle as dairy stock. The following year, the classes becoming so numerous, they wished to point out, for the consideration of the Council, the advisability of dividing for the futire, the heretofore existing heifer class into two distinct classes, viz heifers in milk or in calf above two years, and heifers not exceeding two years old. After the Liverpool Meeting in 1877, they recommended three additional classes for younger stock; and, in 1878, alluded to the proposed English Herd Book, and to the numerous entries at the Show, as indicating the increased number of animals that were now bred in the country, and the interest, especially for dairy purposes, that was being taken in them. Last year the Judges congratulated the Council on the great success which the expansion of the classes had given to animals of the Jersey and Guernsey breeds, and they recommended, if possible, the division of the heifers in milk from those in calf.

 I have dwelt somewhat at considerable length in this introduction on topics which may perkaps be thought superfluous. Yet it seemed a fitting opportunity to put together on record, all that can now be ascertained concerning the history, up to the present time, of this very useful breed of cattle. The first volume of its Herd Book seemed the most suitable repository for this accumulated information, before it became overlaid and lost. That the breed has extended, and is still likely to extend even more than it has hitherto done, is evident from the extraordinary increase in the number of animals exhibited at the various agricultural meetings throughout the country. The readiness of owners to exhibit Jersey Cattle may partially arise from the system of exhibiting the breed in a healthy natural breeding state; whereas most other breeds are invariably shown in a very high state of condition, which experience has proved to be damaging to the dairy properties, as well as the fecundity of the animal. In evidence of the great increase of the breed, I subjoin a table showing the number of the various races entered for the Great International Meeting of the Royal Agricultural Society of England at Kilburn, London, in July 1879:-
Shorthorns................ 179  Scotch Breeds:
Herefords.................  63    Ayrshire................29
Devons....................  56    Polled Galloway.........10
 Sussex....................  95    Polled Angus or Aberdeen 18
Longhorns.................  42    West HIghland...........  3
Norfolk & Suffolk Polled..  35  Kerry (Irish)............. 29
Guernseys.................  39  Welsh..................... 40
Jerseys................... 253  Dairy Cattle.............. 35
                                Other British Breeds......  4

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